Active listening method for Learning English Via Listening
Improve your Speaking and Listening Skills with Learn English via Listening Level 4
There are many listening methods, but for me, I choose the active listening method.
Active listening is a method of learning English because “understanding” and “having” are put first. Listening is to practice speaking in the right voice, understanding what you hear. Every time you listen to it, you must be sure that the sentence is that meaning, pronounced that way.
Therefore, before listening, select the sentences you don’t know and don’t understand and look them up clearly, listen and look at the material to read along, read it fluently and fluently. When you take out the material and can read it according to the rhythm, the voice on the tape, and understand the top, sentence by sentence, you have completed a lesson.
Learning English Via Listening includes six levels. Each level contains 100 listening lessons with one different topic. The audio lessons in Learn English via Listening are sorted by level from easy to difficult. As your listening level improves, you can choose audio tracks from more difficult levels. The presenter speaks with a North American or British accent.
The content of listening practice material according to 6 levels includes:
Learn English via Listening Level 4 (Full)
Article 1 Come to the Fair
Fall fairs have been a feature of North American life since early in the nineteenth century.
At the end of the harvest, people from rural areas have come together to celebrate.
Usually, these fairs take the form of a competition regarding the best of all farm products
of that year. Depending on the part of the country, and its most important crop, fall fairs
can begin as early as August or as late as November. They usually last several days.
When the United States and Canada were organized, they were divided into small units
called counties. Larger units were called states or provinces. Many of the best-known
fairs are county fairs or state fairs. There are also smaller local fairs, and larger ones too,
like the Canadian National Exhibition in Toronto, Ontario.
Since these fairs are usually annual events, many have developed permanent buildings
over the years. Most of these are large barn-like structures. These buildings are used to
display new products for farm life, such as tractors, home furnishings and water systems.
Several barns are usually necessary to house all the horses, cows, pigs, goats, sheep,
chickens and other animals in competition. There must also be room to display all the
vegetables, berries and fruits in competition. Finally, there is space for handicrafts,
artwork, baked goods, and jams and jellies.
Usually, there is a grandstand, which is a stage with wooden seats around it. Here
entertainers perform for an audience during the fair. Country and western singers are
usually popular at fairs, but so are comedians, clowns, dancers and musicians. There
may also be other contests such as a beauty competition for queen of the fair, tests of
strength for the men or pie-eating events. Most fairs also have a racetrack, which is used
for horse racing, or, in some cases, auto-racing.
Fairs have helped to improve animal breeds, and races encourage the breeding of fast
horses. Ploughing contests test the strength and steadiness of horses, and so do pulling
contests. This spirit of competition has led to improvements in all areas of farming. Every
kind of grain, fruit, vegetable, berry and animal is tested, and only the best win a ribbon.
This encourages fairness to improve their products.
Farm women compete to produce the best homemade food and crafts. Many kinds of
fruit and vegetables are stored in glass jars for the winter. The best of these also receive
prizes. Most fairs have a dining area where this good food is served to the public.
The goal of improving farming is sponsored by the governments of Canada and the
U.S.A. Four-H Clubs are youth organizations that encourage farm children to take an
interest in farming. Four-H Clubs aim at improving the heads, hearts, hands and health of
their members. There are also women's organizations, such as the Women's Institutes in
Canada, which work to make the life of farm families better. Fall fairs have taken over the
idea of the midway from the circus. The midway has rides like Ferris wheels, merry-gorounds, and roller coasters. It also has games of chance and skill, such as trying to
throw a small hoop over a large bottle. One nice thing about fall fairs is that they are fun
for the whole family. Children enjoy the midway and the farm animals. Women like the
crafts, food and household exhibits. Men like the machinery, the horse races and the crop
exhibits. Everyone likes the grandstand shows. Nowadays, not so many people live on
farms. But people from towns and cities still enjoy going to fall fairs. They are part of our
North American heritage.
Article 2 Hiroshima
North American children know about Hiroshima. They are taught about the dangers of
nuclear war. Sometimes they learn the details of the damage that was done. They learn about what happened at 8:15 am on August 6, 1945. People were eating breakfast;
children were going to school and adults going to work. There was a blinding flash of
light, a scorching heat, and a mushroom cloud rose up. People close to the explosion
were instantly vaporized. Many of those further away would die from burns and radiation.
Sixty thousand houses were destroyed immediately. One concrete structure remained
standing, although it was damaged. The local government left the Atomic Dome standing
as a memorial to the explosion.
Even those who were not seriously injured in the explosion later became very ill. They
became very sick from radiation poisoning. Many developed leukemia. Sadako Sasaki
was two years old when the bomb exploded. She was apparently uninjured and grew up
normally until she was twelve. Then she developed leukemia, a disease of the blood and
bone marrow. Sadako began to fold paper cranes to protect her from the illness. However,
she died in 1955 before she reached 1,000 paper cranes. Her example inspired the
Children's Monument at Hiroshima.
There is a Peace Museum in Hiroshima which has objects left by the explosion. These
include bottles, metal, stones and tiles twisted into strange shapes by the heat. There are
objects on which people were vaporized, so that their shape appears like a shadow on
the material. There are bits of burnt clothing and many photographs.
Why was the bomb dropped? World War II was a long and bitter war. The rules of war,
which said not to kill civilians, were forgotten. Hitler bombed London, hoping to break
the spirit of the English. Then England bombed Germany to destroy the factories and kill
the people who worked in them. Americans wanted revenge for the Japanese attack on
Pearl Harbor. The U.S. government had spent six billion dollars developing the A-bomb
and wanted to use it. Some say that they also wanted to warn the Russians not to cause
trouble for America.
When American forces advanced on Japan in 1945, they had to decide what to do. Would
Japan surrender, or would they fight to the last soldier? American leaders feared that
they might lose many men by an invasion. Dropping the atomic bomb would end the war
very quickly. President Truman made the decision to use it.
Since then, most people have felt that this decision was wrong. It was such a terrible
thing to do to people - children, old people, women, men and babies. Hiroshima inspired
many people to try to "ban the bomb." They wanted to ensure that atomic bombs would
not be used again. Even some of the scientists and aircrews involved in making and
dropping the bomb at Hiroshima wanted it banned. Perhaps if we can all remember what
happened that day, there will be no more Hiroshima's.
Article 3 Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls is one of the world's leading tourist attractions. Millions of people around
the world visit here each year. Summers at the Falls are especially busy, with traffic jams
and parking problems. However, the Falls are beautiful in winter too.
Many have asked why people travel so far to see water falling over a cliff. The size and
beauty of Niagara Falls help to make it special. While many falls are higher than Niagara,
very few are as wide or have such a volume of water. It also helps that Niagara is
relatively easy to travel to.
When the first Europeans came to Niagara, the Falls were surrounded by forest. The
noise of the Falls could be heard miles away, before they were actually seen. The first visitors were filled with horror at the sight.
Later, fear ceased to be the main emotion inspired by the Falls. Later, visitors were
impressed by the beauty and grandeur of the Falls, which overwhelmed them with
By the 1830s, people were able to come to the Falls by railway. As more and more people
came, the tourist industry developed. Early tourism was not well regulated, and there
were many complaints about cheats and swindles. Today, there are similar complaints
about tourist junk and high prices.
The majority of tourists stay on the Canadian side. There are two falls, separated by an
island. Since the Niagara River forms the boundary here between Canada and the United
States, each country has one of the falls. The Canadian Horseshoe Falls is wider and
more impressive than the American Rainbow Falls. About nine times more water goes
over the Canadian Falls. Nonetheless, there is much to be seen on the American side.
The island in the middle, Goat Island, is one of the best places to view the falls and
rapids. It is on the American side.
Newly married couples began coming to Niagara Falls when it was still a secluded,
peaceful and romantic spot. It is still popular with newly-weds as a relatively inexpensive
and convenient place to spend their honeymoon.
Besides being beautiful, Niagara Falls is also very useful. Their falling water is the power
behind several of the largest hydroelectric stations in the world. Much of the electric
power used in this part of North America comes from Niagara Falls. In order to harness
this power, half of the flow of water is channeled away from the falls during the night, and
during the non-tourist season. Probably most visitors don't notice the difference.
Niagara has attracted many kinds of people over the years. Businessmen have come to
profit from the tourists. Daredevils have come to make a name for themselves. Some
have gone over the falls in a barrel, while others have walked above the falls on a
tightrope. Poets and artists have visited here to capture its beauty. Lovers have come to
gaze on its romantic scenery. All of these, and many others, have helped to make Niagara
Falls world famous.
Article 4 Cowboys
The Golden Age of the American cowboy was short lived. It began in the 1860s with the
great cattle drives from Texas north to Kansas. By 1890, when railroads had reached
remote areas, there was no more need for large-scale cattle drives.
Of course, cowboys have a history before 1860. In fact, there were Mexican cowboys
long before that. The Spanish conqueror of Mexico, Hernan Cortes, brought cattle with
him 1521. Cortes also branded his cattle with a three cross design. The Spanish sharphorned cattle roamed the deserts and prairies freely. Eventually, they found their way to
Texas. American settlers in Texas interbred their animals with the Spanish breed - the
Texas longhorn cow was the result! It was famous for its bad temper and aggressiveness.
The Longhorn was a dangerous animal, with each of its horns measuring up to three and
one-half feet long.
After the American Civil War ended in 1865, disbanded soldiers, who were former black
slaves, and young men seeking adventure headed west. At that time, there were about
five million cattle in Texas. Back in the East, there was a big demand for beef. By this
time, railways from the east extended as far west as Kansas. It was still more than 600
miles from South Texas to the railway. Between the two places there were rivers to cross,
Indian tribes, badlands and other problems. A fur trader named Jesse Chisholm had
driven his wagon north in 1865. Cowboys and cattle followed the Chisholm Trail north to
Abilene, Kansas. This cattle trail became the most famous route for driving cattle, until it
was barred with barbed wire in 1884.
In 1867, cattle dealer Joseph G. McCoy built pens for 3,000 cattle in the little town of
Abilene. Soon Abilene was the most dangerous town in America. After the long cattle
drive, cowboys who had just been paid went wild. Sheriff "Wild Bill" Hickok tamed
Abilene in 1871 by forcing cowboys to turn over their guns when they arrived in town.
Other towns replaced Abilene as the wildest town in the West - Newton, Wichita,
Ellsworth and Dodge City.
In Kansas a herd of 3,000 Texas longhorns might sell for $100,000 making the rancher
rich. The cowboys might get $200 in wages, which often disappeared on drink, women
Getting cattle to Kansas was far from easy. One of the biggest difficulties was getting the
herd across rivers, especially when the river was high. There were no bridges. In 1871,
350 cowboys driving 60,000 cattle waited two weeks for the water level in the Red River
to go down.
Food for men and animals was also difficult to find at times. An early cattleman
developed the chuck wagon, which were both a supply wagon and a portable kitchen.
In the 1870s, there were probably 40,000 cowboys in the West. After the prairies were
fenced in, there was less work. Large ranches still employ cowboys to round up the
cattle for branding or for sale. Even today, about 20,000 cowboys still work in North
Article 5 George W. Bush Jr.
George W. Bush Jr. was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States on
January 20, 2001. Of course, people knew that he was the son of the 41st President,
George H. W. Bush. He had also been Governor of Texas since 1994. However, aside from
this, he was not very well known outside of Texas. Why then did so many people want
him to run for president in 2000?
Many republicans thought that the democrats could be defeated in 2000. But they
themselves lacked a candidate with strong appeal. As the election approached, leading
publicans worried about whom to support. Some of the most powerful republicans were
state governors. They began to look around at each other for a possible candidate. Most
eyes turned to George W. Bush, the Governor of Texas. In November 1998, Bush was reelected as Governor by an impressive margin. By now, Bush was the leading republican
candidate in the polls.
Of course, one advantage that Governor Bush had was a familiar name. In fact, when he
did well in some early polls, it is likely that some people really voted for his father. They
thought that George H. W. Bush was running again. The Bush family was able to swing a
lot of support to George W. It also helped that his brother, Jeb, was now Governor of
Parents George and Barbara were both born in eastern United States. But in 1948,
George moved to Texas where he made a fortune in the oil business. He went into
politics in the 1960s and 70s and served in a number of important positions. He was
Ronald Reagan's Vice President from 1981-1989, and President from 1989-1993.
George W. was born in 1946, the oldest of the Bush children. Three more brothers and
two sisters were also born. The youngest sister died of leukemia as a child.
George W. attended the same prestigious eastern colleges as his father. Then he came
back to Texas and was a fighter pilot with the Texas Air National Guard. During the early
'70s he wandered from place to place, trying different jobs. After attending Harvard
Business School from 1972 to 1975, he came back to Texas and started his own oil
exploration company. Although it wasn't as profitable as his father's company, he
eventually sold his stock shares for a considerable amount of money.
In 1978, he ran for the Senate of the United States but was defeated. He became closely
involved in his father's campaign for president in 1988. Here he developed a lot of the
political skills he was later able to use to run for office himself.
In 1989, back in Texas, George W. organized a group that bought the Texas Rangers
baseball team. He later sold the team in 1998 and made a $14 million dollar profit.
In 1994, he surprised the political world by defeating the incumbent Governor of Texas.
As Governor, he pushed ahead with an energetic program, which reflected neoconservative values. However, George W. did not appear as an ideologist to people. Even
his opponents were willing to work with him. When he ran for president in 2000, Bush
described himself as a "compassionate conservative." Only time will tell how successful
Bush will be as U.S. President.
Article 6 Handel's "Messiah"
George Frederick Handel was a native of Germany and spoke with a German accent all
his life. Most of that life, however, was spent in London, England. As a young musician,
Handel's sponsor was the Elector of Hanover. Later on, when the Elector became King
George I of England, he continued to sponsor Handel.
The young Handel went to Italy to study opera. Opera had become a very fashionable
entertainment for the upper classes. Handel traveled to England in 1711 and made an
immediate success with his operas. Queen Anne granted him a royal pension for life in
1713. Because of this initial success, Handel tried to start a permanent opera company in
London. But this failed and Handel lost money.
Since operas used full stage settings with costumes, scenery and props, they were
expensive to produce. Handel decided to produce oratorios in which the parts were
simply sung without actions.
On August 22, 1741, Handel began to work on his oratorio "The Messiah." The text was
made up of passages from the Bible relating to the birth, life and death of Jesus. Handel
worked on it feverishly, missing meals and going without sleep. He finished it twenty-four
days later. When he was asked how he felt on completing it, Handel said, "I thought I saw
all Heaven before me, and the great God Himself."
In the fall of 1741, Handel received an invitation from the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland to
present operas and concerts there. Handel traveled from London to Dublin with his entire
luggage and many of his singers. However, in order to rehearse on the way, he had to
hire local people to fill in. Once, the composer soundly criticized one local singer who
failed to meet his standards.
Handel was warmly received in Dublin, where his concerts were sold out. Even his
rehearsals were considered newsworthy by the local papers. "The Messiah" was first
publicly performed on April 13, 1742. Seven hundred people squeezed into a 600-seat
theatre to hear it. A notice had requested that ladies attend in hoopless skirts, and that
gentlemen come without their swords. A Dublin paper reported, "Words are wanting to
express the exquisite delight it afforded to the admiring crowded audience." All proceeds
were donated to charity, as the church choirs had refused to participate except on those
Handel returned to London in August 1742 and prepared the oratorio for the London
stage. "The Messiah" made its London debut on March 23, 1743, with King George II in
the audience. It was during the Hallelujah Chorus that the King jumped to his feet and so
initiated a tradition that has lasted ever since.
With such oratories, Handel was able to re-establish his popularity and restore his
finances in London. "The Messiah" continued to be performed. After conducting it on
April 6, 1759, the old composer collapsed and had to be carried home. He died eight days
"The Messiah" remains Handel's most popular work, combining wonderful music with
inspiring religious sentiments. The Biblical text speaks of hope and salvation, and the
music allows the text to soar into angelic songs.
Article 7 Ireland
Ireland is an island in the Atlantic Ocean just west of Britain. For much of its history, it
has been an advantage to Ireland to be far from the mainland. The Romans or the other
early Empires never conquered Ireland. It was the remoteness of Ireland that helped
preserve much of Christian and classical culture. After the fall of the Roman Empire,
wandering tribes destroyed much of what remained on the continent.
Finally, it was Ireland's turn to be invaded. First, the Norsemen or Vikings attacked during
the 800s and 900s. Then in the 1100s, the English invaded Ireland. Since that time, there
has always been an English presence in Ireland. The conflict between the English and
the Irish grew worse in the 1500s. Then the English became Protestant, and the Irish
remained Catholic. In the 1600s, Oliver Cromwell tried to make Ireland Protestant by
driving out the Catholics and bringing in Protestant settlers. In the centuries following,
Irish Catholics had very few rights in their own country. The Catholic Irish were not
allowed to vote until 1829.
Since Irish Catholics were not allowed to own land, they were poor tenant farmers. They
paid rent to the English landlords. The main food crop in the 1840s was potatoes. When
these became infected by blight, thousands of Irishmen starved. Many others were
evicted from their dwellings because they couldn't pay the rent. Hundreds of thousands
of Irish took ship for North America. The Catholic Irish preferred to go to the United
States because Canada was under British influence. However, many Protestant Irish went
The influence of the Irish on North American culture has been very great in many areas.
Prominent Irish-Americans include Presidents John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan.
Meanwhile, in Ireland itself, a strong independence movement developed. A rebellion
against England in 1916 began a struggle that resulted in independence for most of
Ireland. Some Protestant areas in Northern Ireland preferred to stay with England.
Republican groups such as the Irish Republican Army wanted to "liberate" the north from
British rule. Nowadays, conflict between Protestants and Catholics is limited to these
northern counties. Constant attempts are being made to bring the conflict there to an end.
Meanwhile, the Irish Republic, or Eire, has become prosperous again. It can sell its
agricultural products to the European Common Market. Irish beer and whisky are sold all
over the world. Ireland is also becoming known for its high-tech industries. Because of
this relative prosperity, the population is increasing again, after a century and a half of
The Irish differ from other people because the vast majority of Irishmen live away from
their homeland. However, this exodus from Ireland has helped to spread Irish music,
culture and products around the world. On St. Patrick's Day (March 17th), nearly
everyone becomes Irish for the day. Then there is a great party with Celtic music, Irish
dancing, green beer and the wearing of the green.
Article 8 Louisa May Alcott
New England in the early and middle years of the nineteenth century had a flourishing
culture. People were passionately interested in ideas and education. Most New
Englanders were strongly opposed to slavery. They were also concerned about other
New ideas resulted in new kinds of writing. These ideas included the importance of doing
what seemed right for them, no matter how different it was from what other people
thought. People also believed that nature gave them guidance in our lives and that it was
important to live close to nature. These and other ideas were expressed through teaching
Bronson Alcott was one of those who looked at the world in a new way. He looked for
work as a teacher so that he could pass on his ideas to others. However, very few
parents wanted Mr. Alcott to teach their children. And very few people were interested in
hearing his speeches or reading his books. As a result, the Alcott family was very poor
Fortunately for Bronson, he married a very capable and energetic woman. Mrs. Abigail
Alcott helped to earn money to support the family and did most of the work involved in
looking after the four Alcott girls. The oldest daughter, Anna, was quiet and serious. She
rarely got into trouble and was a good helper at home. The second daughter was Louisa
May Alcott, who became a writer. She was adventurous and cared very little for rules.
She was always saying and doing things that got her into trouble. The third daughter,
Elizabeth, was very kind and good-natured. All the others loved her. As a young woman,
Elizabeth had a severe case of scarlet fever and never fully recovered. She died at age 23.
The youngest sister, May, was talented, but she was rather spoiled.
Because there was never enough money, the Alcott girls felt pressure to work at an early
age. But this did not stop them from having fun. Louisa wrote little plays that she and her
sisters performed at home. They all enjoyed the woods and ponds around Concord,
Massachusetts, where they live most of these years. When they moved back to Boston in
1848, Anna took a job looking after other people's children, and Louisa looked after the
house. Meanwhile, their mother worked outside the home.
While working on laundry or sewing, Louisa was thinking up stories. At night she would
write them down. When she was eighteen, she began selling poems and stories to
magazines. Within ten years, Louisa was earning a substantial income from writing. One
day her publisher suggested that she write a story for girls. At first Louisa didn't like the
suggestion. But when she started to write, the ideas came rapidly. Her book was based
on her own family and her own childhood.
"Little Women" was published in 1868 and was an immediate success. The March family
was very much like the Alcotts. Mrs. Alcott resembles "Marmee." "Meg" is like Anna, and
"Jo" is like Louisa herself. "Beth" is based on Elizabeth and "Amy" on May Alcott. Many
of the situations in the book happened to the Alcott family. Nonetheless, many characters
and incidents were invented.
"Little Women" and its sequel opened up a new kind of writing for children. While these
books did have a moral, they were more lively and interesting than earlier children's
writing. "Little Women" inspired many writers later to write more realistic accounts of
Article 9 Niagara-On-The-Lake
Niagara-on-the-Lake is a little town at the mouth of the Niagara River. It is only twelve
miles north of Niagara Falls. It used to be true that very few tourists would bother to
travel from the Falls down to Niagara-on-the-Lake. Nowadays, however, the little town
itself is a major tourist attraction.
The town has a remarkable history. The area played an important role in both the
American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. As a result, the little town has two forts,
Fort George and Fort Mississauga. When Fort George was reconstructed for the public in
the 1930s, Niagara-on-the-Lake got its first big tourist attraction.
Because Niagara-on-the-Lake was the first capital of Ontario, it has many significant
"firsts." There was the first parliament in the province, the first legal society, the first
library, the first newspaper, the first museum building, and many more "firsts."
Besides its history, the town, which is bordered by Lake Ontario and the Niagara River,
has beautiful scenery. On a summer's day, visitors can watch the sailboats going out the
river to the lake. On the landside, Niagara is part of the fruit belt of Ontario. Peaches,
pears, apples, cherries and strawberries grow here in abundance. There are also long
rows of vines, and winemaking has recently become a major industry.
The mild humid climate allows plants to flourish. The trees, especially the oaks, grow to
remarkable heights. Flowering trees and shrubs perfume the air in the spring. Gardens
are often spectacular for much of the year. Because of this, Niagara-on-the-Lake attracts
many painters and photographers. Many of the private homes also have a long history,
and great care is taken to keep them looking their best.
The biggest single attraction is the Shaw Festival Theatre. The Festival was founded in
1962 by a group of Shaw enthusiasts. Early productions were often held in the historic
Court House on the main street, and plays still take place there. In 1973, however, a new
861 seat Shaw Theatre was built at the south end of town. Since then, traffic to Niagaraon-the-Lake has been steady all through the long summer season.
In 1996, Niagara-on-the-Lake was voted "the prettiest town in Canada." Partly, it is the
scale of things that makes the old town so attractive. The old town is only about eight
blocks long by eight blocks wide. It has a population of little more than 1,000 people.
Nonetheless, there is a lot for people to do and see. There are many interesting shops,
old hotels, bookstores, art galleries, museums, a golf course, a marina, historic churches
and cemeteries, several parks, three theatres and lots of restaurants.
Because it is small, Niagara-on-the-Lake is a good place to walk around or bicycle
around. There are also horse and wagon rides. Although the main street can be hectic in
tourist season, one doesn't have to go far off the main street to get in touch with an older
slower time. Most of the downtown buildings haven't changed much since the days of
Queen Victoria, and tourists can still imagine that they are back in the days before
computers and television
Article 10 Newspapers
All the great cities in the world now have newspapers. But newspapers, as we know them
today, are not that old. The very first newspapers began long after the invention of
printing. They started in Europe in the 1600s, and were usually only a couple of pages
long. For a long time, newspapers were not very common. Governments didn't want
public discussion of their policies and decisions. Often they closed down papers, or
taxed them heavily. The "Stamp Tax" on newspapers and pamphlets was one of the
causes of the American Revolution.
Newspapers began to grow in size when they discovered advertising as a source of
income. Nowadays, advertising is the main revenue source for most newspapers. As
newspapers became more widely circulated, they could ask for more money for their
advertisements. By the late eighteenth century, newspapers were in common use in
The 1800s and early 1900s was the golden age of newspapers. Improvements in
transportation, communication and printing processes made it easier to collect news
from near and far and to publish papers more quickly and more cheaply. The Weekly
Dispatch and the Times, both of London, England, were leading newspapers through
much of the 1800s. The Times was one of the first papers to include illustrations. It was
the first newspaper to use a steam engine to turn the presses. When the tax on
newspapers was reduced in 1836, the Times was able to increase its size considerably. In
1840, it began to use the telegraph to collect news stories. In 1855 the tax on newspapers
was finally lifted.
The Times made its greatest reputation during the Crimean War between Britain and
Russia. British armies, fighting in Russia's Crimean Peninsula, were not only
unsuccessful in the war, but were suffering severely from illnesses. The Times sent out
the world's first war correspondent, William Howard Russell, in 1854. His reports from
the battle lines had a powerful effect on the British public. A War Fund was organized to
help the soldiers. Russell forced the government to accept the offer of Florence
Nightingale to organize nurses to travel to Crimea. A photographer, Roger Fenton, sent
back photos from the war, which were published in the Times.
Meanwhile in America, a more popular approach to newspapers had developed. The
newspaper had spread west with the pioneers, and nearly every little settlement had its
own paper. American newspapers were cheaper and livelier than British ones. They were
aimed at the average person, rather than the governing class. Examples of the new style
of editing and publishing were Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst. Hearst,
especially, employed sensational and emotional writing, which aimed at stirring up the
public to action. Hearst is sometimes accused of starting the Spanish-American War of
1898 with his over-heated editorials. Nonetheless, his methods were successful in
raising circulation and were widely imitated.
The modern newspaper contains more than hard news. In fact, news may be a fairly small
part of it. Advertisements, gossip, show business, photos of celebrities, sports, stock market prices, horoscopes, comic strips, weather reports and much more are found in its
pages. The modern newspaper is a total entertainment package. A question for the future
is whether electronic newspapers will replace paper newspapers.
Article 11 Paul Kane, Frontier Artist
Since Christopher Columbus first met American Indians in 1492, many Europeans had
been fascinated by Indian life and culture. As a result, there was a demand in Europe for
drawings and paintings of Native Americans. European artists who had never seen an
Indian supplied most of this demand. But in the nineteenth century, several painters
traveled into Indian Territory to make an authentic record of native life. One of the first
artists to do this was the American painter George Catlin. In 1841, Catlin published a
book of his work. Catlin's work helped inspire another important frontier artist, the
Canadian Paul Kane.
Paul Kane was born in Ireland in 1810. His family moved to Toronto, Ontario, Canada,
when Paul was nine years old. The young boy was not very interested in school. At that
time, there were still Indians living in wigwams in the Toronto area. Young Paul liked
visiting the Indian village instead of going to school.
Since Paul spent little time in school, he was largely a self-taught artist. He also became
a surprisingly good writer, considering that he had not spent much time studying
spelling or grammar. After working some years making and decorating furniture, Kane
was ready to travel. He spent the years from 1836 to 1841 living and traveling in the
United States. Then he traveled in Europe from 1841 to 1843, studying the great painters
of the past. He was back in the U.S.A. until 1845, and then he returned to Toronto.
Immediately upon his return, Kane headed into the wilderness areas around Georgian
Bay, Sault Ste. Marie, and Lake Michigan. His plan was to sketch Indian life before it
disappeared forever. American Indians were dying so rapidly from European diseases,
such as measles and smallpox, that many people believed that they would soon vanish
as a race. Their culture was threatened too. As white settlers demanded more land,
Indians were being herded into small pieces of land called "reservations." Here they
could no longer practice their traditional way of life. Kane wanted to capture Native
American life while it still existed.
Kane returned to Toronto at the end of 1845. He had received one good piece of advice
and that was if he wanted to travel into the wilderness, he would have to go with
experienced people. He was able to get the support of the Governor of the Hudson's Bay
Company, Sir George Simpson. In May 1846, Kane joined the annual canoe fleet of fur
traders going west. Kane would travel all through the wilderness areas of western
Canada and northwestern U.S.A. During this time, he made hundreds of sketches of
Although Kane faced incredible hardships during his travels, he was able to see what he
wanted to see. He was able to take part in one of the last great Buffalo hunts and killed
two large bison himself. Traveling west with the fur traders he visited many forts and
trading posts. He saw and painted a prairie fire. He shot a grizzly bear at close range and
killed several wolves that attacked his horses. He learned to travel long distances on
snowshoes in winter. Finally, he arrived at the Pacific coast, where he made some fine
drawings of the west coast Indians. European diseases had reached there just before
Kane. Fifteen hundred Indians had died near Fort Vancouver in the summer of 1848. One wealthy chief had ruled 1,000 warriors and had ten wives, four children and eighteen
slaves. Now he had only one wife, one child and two slaves. Kane had not come too soon.
However, there were tribes still unaffected by western culture and western diseases.
Kane also traveled widely around the Columbia River in northwestern U.S.A. Everywhere
he went, he sketched Indian chiefs and scenes of native life. On his return trip, he
encountered a large war party of 1,500 braves on the warpath against their traditional
enemies. He was able to sketch the leading chief, Big Snake, who was later killed in
single combat during the battle.
When he arrived back in Toronto, Kane gave an exhibit of his sketches and watercolors.
Most of the rest of his life was spent turning these drawings into finished paintings.
Article 12 Plains Indians
The best known picture of an American Indian is a warrior in buckskin, riding a horse,
wearing a headdress of eagle feathers and carrying a spear, or bow and arrow. This is a
picture of a Plains Indian, and it appears in many Hollywood westerns and on the
American five-cent piece. There were many tribes of Plains Indians; for the Northern
American prairies or plains stretch from the northern forest of western Canada down to
the States of Oklahoma and Texas in southern U.S.A.
It is interesting that our image of the Plains Indian is only true for the last couple hundred
years. It was not until the 1600s that Plains Indians began to ride horses. There were no
horses in America until Spanish soldiers brought them in the 1500s and 1600s. Some of
these horses escaped and ran wild on the prairies of America. It was these wild horses
that the Plains Indians learned to tame.
Before they had horses, the Indians hunted buffalo on foot. Buffalo were huge bison, or
wild cattle, which traveled in very large herds. A big herd might have millions of buffalo.
It was difficult to cross the prairie because these animals blocked your way.
The Plains Indians had various ways of killing buffalo. Before they had horses, Indian
hunters would quietly creep up close to the herd; then they would fire their arrows
together. There was always the danger that the herd would stampede and trample the
hunters. Another method was to drive the buffalo over a steep cliff. There are a number
of places on the plains where this was done.
Once the Plains Indians had horses, they preferred to hunt buffalo on horseback. When
the tribes started to use guns, they could kill many buffalo. Artist Paul Kane describes a
buffalo hunt in the Red River Valley in 1846. The hunters carried their bullets in their
mouths so that they could shoot faster. They would ride right into the herd, shooting at
close quarters. They would drop an article of clothes on the slain buffalo to mark it for
themselves. Then they would continue the hunt. After the hunt, the Indians would skin
the animals, and the women would dry the meat and store it in fat. A single hunt might
kill more than 30,000 buffalo.
The Plains Indians received nearly everything they needed from the buffalo. Of course,
they used buffalo meat for food. They also used the buffalo skins for clothing, blankets,
and the covering of their teepees. These teepees were cone-shaped tents, which were
easy to put up and take down. Plains Indians were nomadic, and followed the animals
they hunted. Since these animals were plentiful, Plains Indians usually led a comfortable
life. They developed complex religions and social rituals, as well as specialized societies
or clubs. There were also rituals and customs for hunting and warfare. Many Plains Indians fought hard against the settlement of the Great Plains. The American
government discouraged the hunting of buffalo, because without the buffalo the Plains
Indians would not be able to fight. With the buffalo disappearing, the Plains Indians had
to give up fighting and move into government-sponsored reservations.
Article 13 Pocahontas and John Smith
In 1606, King James of England approved the establishment of two colonies along the
eastern coast of America. The northern colony in Maine lasted only a year. The southern
one at Jamestown in Virginia became England's first permanent settlement in America.
In 1607, the Virginia Company sent 104 settlers to Virginia. The settlers lived in tents all
summer. By September, more than 60 were dead because they lacked good food or water.
The leaders of the colony were not energetic and did little to make the settlers find food.
One member of the company, Captain John Smith, was determined that the colony would
survive. Smith pressured the colonists to build huts, a storehouse, and a church. He
made daring trips to Indian villages, demanding that they give the settlers food in return
for beads and copper. He threatened settlers who were trying to leave the colony and go
back to England.
On one of his trips to the interior, Indians attacked John Smith. They killed his two
companions but captured him alive. He was taken first to the local chief. This chief was
impressed by Smith's compass and spared his life. His captors dragged Smith from
village to village. He finally arrived at the town belonging to Powhatan. Powhatan was the
great chief for all of the tribes in that region. Powhatan and his advisors talked about
what to do with Smith. Suddenly, Smith was dragged forward, and his head was pushed
against a stone. The warriors raised their clubs to kill Smith. Then Pocahontas, who was
Powhatan's twelve-year-old daughter, begged for his life. Her words had no effect, so
Pocahontas ran to Smith. She took his head in her arms and laid her own head against
his head. Smith was released and went back to Jamestown.
Soon after Smith returned, one hundred new settlers from England arrived. It was a very
cold winter, and in January, Jamestown was accidentally set on fire. The settlers suffered
from cold and hunger the rest of the winter. Every four or five days, Pocahontas and her
attendants came. They brought food for the hungry settlers. Even so, half of them died.
In the summer, John Smith explored that part of the coast of America. He made a map
that would be very valuable for future sailors and settlers.
On his return, Smith was elected leader of the colony at Jamestown. However, some
settlers did not like having to follow rules. Some encouraged the Indians to try to kill
Smith. Chief Powhatan agreed. He also refused to supply food to the colony, hoping to
starve them out. Pocahontas warned Smith about the plot against his life. Smith had to
fight off several attempts to kill him. Finally, the colony seemed to be growing, and the
Indians became peaceful. But in late 1609, Smith was injured in an explosion and
returned to England.
Pocahontas remained a friend to the colony. She married John Rolfe, one of the settlers.
In 1616, she traveled to England with her husband and son. There she saw John Smith
once again. She was so surprised to see him that she was unable to speak for several
days. Pocahontas had believed that Smith was dead. The following year she died and
was buried in England.
Pocahontas' love for Smith, and Smith's determination to fight for the colony, had saved Jamestown and given the English their first colony in America.
Article 14 Remember The Alamo!
The first Europeans in the American Southwest were Spanish explorers and conquerors.
They were followed by religious orders that set up missions to Christianize the Indians.
One of these missions was San Antonio de Valero; it was founded in 1718 in what is now
San Antonio, Texas. Later, the mission structure became known as The Alamo.
In 1821, Moses Austin had persuaded the Spanish authorities to give him a charger to
settle 200,000 acres in Texas. The elder Austin died shortly after this. Five weeks later,
his son Stephen Austin traveled to San Antonio to have this charter confirmed by the
Spanish governor. In 1822, Austin led 150 settlers into Texas. When Austin learned
afterwards that Mexico was now independent of Spain, he journeyed to Mexico City to
have his charter reconfirmed. The Mexicans appointed Austin regional administrator for
Texas grew rapidly. Cotton farming and cattle ranching were profitable and attracted
American settlers. By 1830, there were 16,000 Americans in Texas--four times the
Sam Houston had been a successful soldier and politician. He was a friend and
supporter of President Andrew Jackson. However, personal problems and political
difficulties led him to leave the U.S.A. for Texas.
Meanwhile, the struggle for control of Mexico had been won in 1833 by Santa Ana.
However, the independent thinking of the Texans infuriated Santa Ana. He had Stephen
Austin thrown in jail, and sent an army into Texas. Austin was released from jail in time to
organize the defense of Texas. The Mexican army was besieged inside the Alamo, and
after fierce fighting, surrendered. The Mexicans were allowed to go home.
Sam Houston was now elected the State's supreme commander. Not long after this,
Santa Ana approached Texas with an army of 6,000 men. Houston decided not to meet
Santa Ana in open battle but to wait for an advantage. He sent frontiersman Jim Bowie to
the Alamo. Bowie's orders were to leave San Antonio and destroy the Alamo.
When Bowie arrived, however, Texas volunteers were preparing the Alamo for a siege.
Bowie and his men pitched in to help. Other volunteers came. The fiery William Travis
arrived with 25 men. Then, the famous frontiersman, Davy Crockett, came with a dozen
Tennessee sharpshooters. When Santa Ana attacked, there were 183 Americans inside
Santa Ana brought up cannon to bombard the Alamo. As the walls began to crumble,
4,000 Mexicans attacked from all four sides. The Mexicans overcame all resistance
because of their large numbers, but they suffered very heavy losses. All the American
defenders were killed.
While the battle was raging, the Texans back at the colony declared their independence
Sam Houston now gathered men to fight the Mexican army. At first, he retreated while
waiting for a suitable opportunity. When Santa Ana's rapid advance left the bulk of the
Mexican army behind, Houston prepared to fight. Santa Ana's advance troops moved into
swampy land by the San Jacinto River. Houston's men attacked while the Mexicans were
having their midday siesta. Their battle cry was "Remember the Alamo!" The battle was
soon over. Many Mexicans were killed, but only a couple of Texans were killed. Santa Ana was a prisoner.
Santa Ana readily agreed now to recognize Texas as an independent republic. Ninety
years later, in 1845, Texas became the 28th State of the U.S.A.
Article 15 Gribbio
St. Francis of Assisi, who lived in Italy in the early thirteenth century, was known for his
love of animals. He was the first person who celebrated the birth of Jesus by gathering
live animals around a manger. He often talked to the birds as he traveled along.
Sometimes, the birds would fly down and sit on his head, shoulders, knees and arms.
But the best-known animal story concerns St. Francis and the Wolf of Gribbio. St. Francis
was known for his humility and his unwillingness to hurt anyone. Once, when one of his
followers spoke harshly to some bandits, St. Francis told the man to run after the bandits
and apologize. In the same way, St. Francis thought of animals as his brothers and
sisters. Once when he was warned about some dangerous wolves, he replied that he had
never harmed Brother Wolf, and didn't expect the wolf to harm him.
While St. Francis was staying the hill town of Gribbio, he heard about a large, fierce wolf.
The townspeople were terrified of this wolf that had eaten both domestic animals and
humans. St. Francis decided to help the people and went out to talk to the wolf. The
people watched in horror as the wolf came running to attack St. Francis. But the saint
made the sign of the cross. Then he said to the wolf that, in the name of Jesus, it should
stop hurting people. The wolf then lay down at St. Francis' feet.
St. Francis addressed a little sermon to the wolf. He recounted all the terrible things that
the wolf had done. But he added that he wanted to make peace between the wolf and the
townspeople. The wolf nodded its head in approval.
In return for the wolf's agreement to keep the peace, St. Francis promised him that he
would arrange for the townspeople to feed him. When he asked the wolf never again to
harm any person or animal, the wolf nodded again. Then the wolf put out its paw as a
sign that it would keep its promise.
The wolf walked beside St. Francis back into Gribbio. When a crowd assembled, the saint
preached to them about how God had allowed the wolf to terrify them because of their
sins. He told them to repent, and God would forgive them. Then he spoke of the promise
that the wolf had made and what he had promised the wolf in return. The people agreed
to feed the wolf regularly, and the wolf again indicated that it would not hurt anyone.
Again, it put its paw in St. Francis' hand.
The wolf and the people kept the agreement. Two years later the wolf died. The people
remembered how it no longer hurt anyone and that not a single dog ever barked at it. The
townspeople of Gribbio lamented its death. Whenever it went through town, it had
reminded them of the virtues and holiness of St. Francis.
Article 16 Summertime
In North America, July and August are holiday months. Most schools and colleges are
not in session then. Families look for activities to keep the children amused. Although
not all workers get a full two months of holidays, most people take a holiday in the
The summer begins with a national holiday. In Canada, July 1st is Canada Day. In the
U.S.A., July 4th is Independence Day. A lot of families are soon on the road. Some travel
to cottages by the lake. Some go sightseeing or camping. In Canada, especially, the
summers are short. So people try to make the most of them.
In much of Canada, and parts of the northern U.S.A., are woodlands dotted with lakes.
These regions of rocks, rivers, pine trees and wild animals are not usually suitable for
farming. However, they are ideal places to spend a summer holiday. They are far from the
cities. The woods are quiet and peaceful. People fish, go boating or swimming, have
barbeques outside, or play outdoor sports. Some people spend their whole summer at
the cottage. Others go for a week or two.
City people who don't have a cottage like to go to parks and swimming pools in the city.
If they are near a lake or ocean, they may go there for the day. Many museums, libraries
and art galleries have programs for children in the summer.
Swimming is probably the favorite summer sport. It feels wonderful on a very hot day to
jump into the cool water. Swimming is also excellent exercise. Besides swimming,
baseball and football are also popular in the summer. Spending an afternoon or evening
at a baseball game is a favorite summer pastime.
Summer is also a favorite time to catch up on reading. Stories of adventures and love
novels are favorite light reading.
But summer is especially a time for traveling across the country. Some people have a
camper or trailer that they can live in. Some stay in campgrounds and sleep in tents.
Others stay at hotels or motels, while others rent cottages or cabins for a week or two.
Most trips are by car. Many people visit national parks and other wildlife areas. Of course,
trips along the ocean, and the lakes are favorites. Along the Atlantic Ocean, the coasts of
New England and Canada's Maritime Provinces are especially popular. On the Pacific
coast, tourists travel from California all the way up to Alaska. Boat cruises along the
shores of British Columbia and Alaska are especially popular.
Of course, some people find it most relaxing just to stay at home. Others cannot afford to
travel. If you have an air-conditioned house, with a television, video player, CD player and
computer, then it can be very pleasant to stay at home. A lot of new movies are released
at the theatres in the summer. Air-conditioned theatres with new movies and lots of pop
and popcorn are favorite summer places.
After two months of summer activities, most people are ready to go back to school and
work. But they usually have lots of happy memories to take back with them.
Article 17 Telephone Systems
When Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone in the 1870s, it was fairly simple
to use. You talked into the mouthpiece and then held it to your ear to listen. For a century
of so, using the telephone meant either contacting the operator to dial a number, or
dialing yourself. After that, all you had to do was talk or listen.
Nowadays, the telephone has become a very complex instrument; it rivals the computer
as to the number of possible uses. Answering machines have been around for several
decades, but they are now being replaced by voicemail. Voicemail does away with the
need for an answering machine. Messages are stored on the system. That means that it
is possible to forward the message to someone else's phone, or transfer the call to a
more convenient phone of your own. You can also use "call pickup," so that anyone in
your group can answer another's phone.
Conference calls have become very common. This is when one person phones first one
person, then another, and keeps adding people to the telephone conversation. This can
regularly be done with up to six people. It is very useful for business discussions where
different people need to talk about the same thing. It also speeds up the process of
consensus, and allows everybody to be in on the decision or discussion.
The modern phone has many more features. If you don't want the caller to know what is
being said in your office, you can push the "mute" button. If you want to hang up without
putting the receiver down, press "goodbye." If you don't want to receive calls, just
forward them all into your voicemail.
Newer phones will indicate when you have voicemail messages. If you have trouble with
these features, an automatic voice will tell you your options. This help-system is built
into the telephone. For example, the help-voice will tell you how to set up a distribution
list, so that you can send the same voice message to a number of people. It will also tell
you how to send a message directly onto someone's voicemail. You can designate your
message to go to the top of the recipient's voicemail list. You can also program it so that
the recipient cannot forward it.
Some systems have limits on how much space can be used for individual voicemail.
There are a number of courtesies that voicemail users should follow. Your greeting on
your voicemail should be simple, polite and clear. If you are unable to take calls for any
reason, you might want to explain that in your recorded greeting. If you are on vacation,
you might want to include that information in your greeting.
Don't use voicemail as a way to avoid answering the telephone. Some people use
voicemail to screen calls; this can be annoying to someone who can never contact you
directly. Check your messages regularly and reply to them promptly. Enjoy the
Article 18 Texas
The state of Texas is famous for having the biggest and best of everything. Before Alaska
became a state, Texas was the largest American state. It was also famous for its huge
cattle ranches. Cotton is a major crop, but much of the wealth comes from oil and gas.
People think of Texans as being wealthy because there have been lots of cattle and oil
In the late nineteenth century, Texas cattlemen used to drive their herds north to Kansas.
There a train to the east shipped the cows. Eventually, the railroad came to Texas and the
great cattle drive stopped. By then, many Texans owned large ranches and were quite
In the twentieth century, oil has made many Texans wealthy. Oil refining has led to
chemical industries and synthetic products. Most Texans now live in cities. Many oil
companies have their headquarters in Dallas. Other large manufacturing cities are
Houston, Corpus Christi, Fort Worth and Austin, which is the Capital of Texas.
Several cities, such as San Antonio and El Paso, have a strong Spanish influence. This
dates back to the first Spanish visitors in the sixteenth century. The old mission at San
Antonio is famous as the Alamo, where an important battle for Texas independence was
Texas is a huge area with mountains, deserts, prairies, rivers and islands. The rugged
beauty of its grasslands and deserts attracts many tourists. For a state that is mostly dry,
Texas has a remarkable variety of wildflowers in the spring. Its animals and birds differ
from other parts of the U.S.A. Texas has the armored insect eater, the Armadillo; the swift
running bird, the Roadrunner; prairie dogs, jackrabbits, kangaroo rats, wild pigs, horned
lizards, and one hundred species of snakes! As might be expected also, it has many
beautiful kinds of cacti and other desert plants.
At its largest, Texas is more than 600 miles wide by 600 miles long. Such a large area
develops a distinct culture of its own. And Texans are widely recognized by their accent
and manner of speaking, their attitudes and interests and their sense of independence
Texas is also known for its beautiful women, who regularly win national beauty contests.
Its men have a reputation for being rugged, for not talking more than they have to and for
being straightforward and honest.
Although many people think of cowboys and Indians when they think of Texas, it is a
center for high-tech industries. The American space program has its headquarters in
Houston, and Mission Control Center is there. Texas is also an important manufacturer of
computers and other high tech products.
Oil production is still important in Texas, but it ranks third as a source of revenue behind
manufacturing and tourism. The colorful history of Texas and its wonderful scenery
contribute to a thriving tourist industry. Texas is also an important business and financial
area. Yes, even though times have changed, Texans proudly maintain that their state still
has the biggest and the best of everything.
Article 19 The Ford Pinto Case
Businessmen often complain that their profits are negatively affected by government
regulations. On the other hand, history has proven that it is necessary to regulate
business in at least one area--public safety. There is ample evidence that consideration
for the safety of the public is not always a priority in business decisions.
Back in 1912, the Titanic smashed into an iceberg, killing hundreds of people. It was
going too fast through a large collection of icebergs, while attempting to set a speed
record. Unfortunately, there were not enough lifeboats to accommodate the passengers.
Usually when such a tragedy occurs, the company is not found guilty. Instead, safety
regulations are enacted for future cases. In the future, ships were ordered to carry a
sufficient supply of lifeboats.
In 1978, the Ford Motor Company was indicted on the charge of homicide. This was the
first time such a charge had been brought against an American corporation. It related to
the deaths of three teenage girls who were burned up when their Ford Pinto was hit from
behind. The prosecution charged that the Ford Company knowingly manufactured a
Behind this story is the pressure on Ford to produce a small car to compete with
imported vehicles. The Pinto was rushed into production in spite of warnings that the
gas tank was in a dangerous position. It would have cost Ford an additional $11.00 per
car to fix the problem. Ford decided not to.
Later, Ford produced a cost-benefit analysis to justify their position. Estimating that the
faulty design would cause 180 additional deaths, Ford valued these at $200,000 per
person. This cost was far less than equipping 12.5 million vehicles with $11.00 protectors. So Ford felt that they had made the right decision.
Ford executives were acquitted on the charge of homicide. Nonetheless, Ford had to pay
out millions of dollars in out-of-court settlements. These were paid to families who had
lost relatives in Pinto accidents.
This case shows how far a company will go to protect its profits. For more than eight
years, Ford lobbied the government not to tighten safety standards on cars. As long as
the Pinto was profitable, Ford did not want to change the design. Although Ford made a
lot of money on the Pinto, their reputation was tarnished.
The Fort Pinto case is one of many which point to the need for governments to set safety
standards. No business wants to recall its products, or leave them sitting idly in a
warehouse, or expend large sums of money for upgrading and repairs. No airplane
company wants to have its planes in the hangar when they could be in the air making
money for the corporation. As a result, commercial companies are seldom motivated to
look closely at product or service safety. This is especially true today when the "bottom
line" in business is seen as a justification for every decision. For this reason,
governments have to oversee issues of public safety. Most businesses are too busy
working on profits to have much time or concern for doing so.
Article 20 The Golden Man ? El Dorado
When Christopher Columbus sailed west from Spain in 1492, he was trying to reach the
Spice Islands (which today are called Indonesia). Spices were very scarce and valuable
in Europe at this time. No one knew that two vast oceans and the American continents
lay between Europe and Asia. Columbus did not find spices in America, but he did bring
home some gold trinkets. The American Indians wore these as jewellery. Gold, not spices,
was to become the biggest motive for exploration.
Expeditions into the interior of the Americas were very costly and very risky. Only by
promising the authorities huge profits could sailors and soldiers raise money for their
expeditions. They also needed to promise rich rewards in order to get followers and
crews. If a leader returned to Europe without gold and jewels, he might end up in jail. No
wonder the Spanish conquerors were always searching for gold.
At first, the Spaniards stayed around the coasts of the Caribbean Sea, but stories of gold
in the interior tempted them to explore inland. They asked the Indians where their gold
jewellery came from. The Indians would point further inland. They said that a wealthy
people lived in the high mountains that traded gold and emeralds for pearls, cotton and
The Spanish Emperor had given the rights to exploit present-day Venezuela and
Colombia to his German bankers in 1528. So Germans--Dalfinger, Federmann and
Hohermuth--led a series of expeditions into the jungles, grasslands and mountains.
Meanwhile, Spanish conquerors had found immense riches in gold and silver. Hernando
Cortes had captured the Kingdom of the Aztecs in Mexico in 1519. He had sent immense
treasures to Europe. Soon after this, Francesco Pizarro began to explore the west coast
of South America. In 1531, Pizarro invaded Peru and destroyed the Kingdom of the Incas.
Pizarro melted down the gold and silver treasures of the Incas, and sent gold and silver
bricks back to Spain. The rush to find more gold became very heated.
Rumours came down from the mountains of Colombia about a golden man - el hombre
Dorado. There were stories about a king so rich that he wore gold dust instead of a coat. Colombia was the Kingdom of the Chibchas. They were a trading people who traded salt
and emeralds for gold, cotton, pearls, and shells. The actual gold did not come from their
kingdom. It was found in the mountain rivers, and brought to the Chibchas for refining
Several armies converged on Chibcha territory. The first to arrive was the Spaniard
Quesada, coming up the Magdalene River from the Caribbean. He found the chief cities
of the Chibchas and seized their gold and emeralds. Shortly afterwards, one of Pizarro's
captains arrived from Peru and Ecuador. Then the German Federmann arrived from
Venezuela. Quesada gave the latecomers some gold and jewels to ease their
Quesada's men also found out about the Golden Man. High in the mountains was a lake
created by a meteorite. The Indians believes that the 'golden god' from the sky now lived
at the bottom of the lake. When a new leader of the tribe was elected, he was covered in
grease, and fine gold dust was blown over his body so that he appeared to be made of
gold. He was taken out to the middle of the lake on a raft. He would jump into the lake,
and stay in the water till the gold dust was washed off. It was considered an offering to
the god. Gold ornaments were also tossed in the lake. Then the king and his followers
would return to the shore. This ceremony was stopped several generations before the
Many people were unwilling to believe that this was the whole story. They began to
search for a golden city hidden in the jungle. Many explorers perished in this search.
In their search for gold, the Spanish conquerors destroyed the great Indian civilizations
of America. Towns and villages had been ruined, thousands of people killed and
wonderful pieces of art melted down. Some Indians believed that gold must be a food
that Europeans desperately needed to stay alive. In many cases, the Europeans
destroyed the trading and social systems that had produced their wealth. When we think
about the great achievements of a few conquerors and explorers, we are also sad about
how much death and damage they caused.
Article 21 The Grand Canyon
The Grand Canyon is one of the most spectacular sights in nature. It is found in one
section of the valley of the Colorado River. The river begins its course high in the Rocky
Mountains of the State of Colorado. The river travels a total of 1,400 miles through
Colorado, Utah and Arizona and into the Gulf of California. It forms part of Arizona's
border with Nevada and California.
The Colorado River is a very swift and muddy river. It carries dirt and rocks down from
the mountains. The story is told of an old fur trader who was attacked by Indians high up
the river. His only escape was down the Colorado River in a small boat. It was a terrifying
trip through rapids and around rocks at top speed. The fur trader was found some days
later in very rough shape hundreds of miles down the river. No one would believe that he
had come so far so fast.
The Grand Canyon stretches for about 250 miles in the State of Arizona. The canyon was
carved out by the flow of the river itself. In places the canyon is more than a mile deep. It
stretches from four to 18 miles wide at the top. The canyon valley contains worn rocks
that rise up like a mountain range. The canyon has been worn down through many layers
of rock. The river has cut its way down through layers of sandstone, limestone and
shape to the granite bedrock. The different layers are of different colours, and the rocks
appear very beautiful, especially at sunrise and sunset.
Because the canyon is so deep, the climate changes as you go down into the valley. At
the top, the climate is typical of a mountain area, with evergreen trees. Next, you have
typical forest trees. Third, there are plants like cacti that grow in warm deserts. Finally,
there are sub-tropical plants at the valley bottom.
Tourists can ride down the narrow trails to the bottom of the valley on mules. On one
side is the rock wall of the canyon, and on the other side is a steep drop down to the
bottom. Tourists have to trust their guide, and the mule that they are riding, to get them
down safely. The trails zigzag back and forth, and the tourist going down travels much
more than a mile. Some 1,000 square miles of the area became the Grand Canyon
National Park in 1919.
Because the Colorado River is very swift and runs through dry country, several dams
have been built along it. These are designed to harness its power, save its water and
provide recreational opportunities. The best-known dam is Hoover Dam, formerly
Boulder Dam, on the Arizona-Nevada border. This impressive structure is 727 feet high,
and 1,282 feet long. Elevators are used to carry workers up and down inside the dam.
The water, which is backed up by the Hoover Dam, forms Lake Mead. Lake Mead is used
to irrigate nearby land, as well as for boating and fishing. The dam itself is a major
source of electric power for this section of the country.
Visitors to the Grand Canyon are often filled with awe by the size and beauty of the
canyon. People seem very small in comparison to the immense cliffs, valleys and the
Article 22 The Niagara Park's Commission
Niagara Falls, Canada, became a major tourist attraction in the mid-1830s. By this time,
roads, canals and railways were able to bring people from urban centers, like New York
and Boston. However, the chance for big profits attracted dishonest businessmen. One
hotel in the 1860s was popularly known as the "Cave of the Forty Thieves."
There were many complaints from tourists about tricks that were used to get their money.
Some businessmen tried to put up fences around the Falls, so that all visitors would
have to pay them to see the Falls. In time, these complaints reached the ears of important
people. In 1873, Lord Dufferin, the Governor-General of Canada, proposed that the
government buy all the land around the Falls. On the American side, New York State
bought 412 acres around the American Rainbow Falls in 1885. In the same year, land was
bought near the Canadian Horseshoe Falls and named Queen Victoria Park. A
commission was formed to obtain control of all land along the Niagara River. This was
made easier because a narrow strip along the river was already government land.
However, the Commission wanted to preserve all the beautiful scenery along the river
and near the Falls for the general public. The first commissioner of the parks was Sir
Casimir Gzowski, a distinguished engineer of Polish birth.
Before the Queen Victoria Park Commission began to buy up land besides the Falls,
tourists had to pay for everything. There were no public washrooms, no drinking
fountains, and no safety barriers around the Falls. As a result, it was not uncommon for
tourists crowding close to the Falls, or hypnotized by the flow of the river, to step too
close and fall in. The commission took care of these problems and also set up parks and
picnic areas. In 1927, the Commission's name was changed to the Niagara Parks
Commission. It now supervises numerous attractions and parks from Niagara-on-theLake on Lake Ontario, down to Fort Erie on Lake Erie. Each section of the 56-kilometer
stretch of Niagara Parks has its own places of interest. These are joined by the Niagara
Parkway, a road that runs the whole length of the river. Sir Winston Churchill called the
parkway, "The prettiest Sunday afternoon drive in the world."
The Niagara Parks Commission operates restaurants, parks and gardens, rides,
museums and historic houses, golf courses, native sites and gift shops. Near the Falls
are restaurants, parks, greenhouses, the "Journey Behind the Falls" and the "Maid of the
Mist" boat ride. North of the Falls, at Niagara Gorge, are the Spanish Aero Car Ride and
the Great Gorge Adventure. The Commission also operates a School of Horticulture, with
large gardens. Queenston Heights is a park commemorating one of Canada's heroes,
General Isaac Brock. In nearby Queenston are historic houses connected with two other
important Canadians, Laura Secord and William Lyon MacKenzie. The Commission also
operates two historic forts, dating from the War of 1812 - Fort George and Old Fort Erie.
The Niagara Parks Commission has played a major role in making Niagara Falls and the
Niagara River one of the leading tourist areas in the world. The Commission shows how
governments can work to make visits to natural wonders like Niagara Falls a good
experience for the general public.
Article 23 The Welland Canal
Before railways and automobiles became common, transporting goods over long
distances was a difficult chore. In early North America, roads were often bad or nonexistent. In the winter, snow and cold weather made travel difficult. Frontier farmers had
trouble selling their crops because it was hard to get them to the cities.
Often rivers and lakes were the best ways to travel. Fur traders carried their furs and
other supplies in canoes. But even large canoes were not big enough to hold a shipment
of wheat. Rapids and waterfalls meant that goods had to be taken out of the canoe and
carried to the next body of calm water.
One way to improve water transportation was to build a canal. In New York State,
Governor DeWitt Clinton had constructed the Erie Canal from the Niagara River to the
Hudson River, soon after the War of 1812.
Because relations between the United States and Canada were still not very friendly, this
was another reason to build a canal on the Canadian side. Canals could be used to move
supplies and troops during wartime. Sometimes the British government would forbid
Canadian farmers to sell food to the U.S.A. Without a canal to move their farm produce,
crops were sometimes left to rot.
A St. Catharines, Ontario, merchant named William Hamilton Merritt thought about all
these things in the 1820s. He also thought that flourmills needed a more reliable source
of water to operate.
St. Catharines is on Twelve-Mile Creek below the Niagara Escarpment. This creek runs
towards Lake Ontario. It rises above the Escarpment, which stands from 150 to 300 feet
high, then runs towards Lake Ontario. If Merritt could join the Twelve-Mile Creek to one of
the rivers, which ran to Lake Erie, the canal would provide transportation and waterpower.
The problem was to find a way to move boats up the escarpment.
From 1824 to 1829, Merritt and his friends hired labourers to dig away tons of dirt and rock. Nearly all the work was done with shovels, pickaxes, horses and wagons. In places,
the ground was soft and landslides occurred. In other places, the men had to dig through
solid granite rock.
Merritt's main problem, however, was raising the money to pay for the construction. After
sinking all the money that he, his family and friends had into the canal, more was needed.
Merritt went to Toronto, New York and finally London, England to get the financial
support he needed.
The problem of getting the boats to climb the escarpment was solved by a series of 35
wooden locks. These carried a ship 327 feet upwards. The ship would enter a lock with a
small amount of water. More water would come into the lock, lifting the boat another ten
or fifteen feet. Then the ship would move into the next lock, and be lifted up again. Boats
going in the opposite direction were lowered instead of lifted.
The Welland Canal has been rebuilt three times since the first canal opened in 1829. Now
large sea-going and lake vessels cross the Niagara Peninsula from Lake Ontario to Lake
Erie. They carry grain, coal, iron ore, oil and many other bulk products. The Welland
Canal remains one of the most important commercial waterways in the world.
Article 24 Wal-Mart Stores
Wal-Mart is now the world's largest retail organization. Wal-Mart employs around 1.2
million people worldwide. In 2000, Wal-Mart had sales of more than $191 billion, with
profits of $6.3 billion. Profits increased 16% from the previous year.
People have come to expect that Wal-Mart's profits will increase substantially every year.
Each year more stores are opened, and Wal-Mart expands into new countries. Wal-Mart
also enters new areas of business nearly every year. Few people know that Wal-Mart is
also a major real estate company.
Sam Walton opened his Walton's Five and Dime in Bentonville, Arkansas, in 1950. Twelve
years later he opened the first Wal-Mart in Bentonville. His business philosophy was
simple-- good prices, great selection and a friendly greeting. Walton was known for the
"Ten Foot Attitude." This means that any employee should greet any customer who is
within ten feet of them. He emphasized that it is important to speak to people before they
speak to you. Walton also believed that good deals from suppliers should be passed
along to customers. The combination of low prices and friendly service is basic to WalMart's success. That one store in Bentonville has become 4,203 stores in the U.S.A., plus
another 1,000 outside the United States.
Walton died in 1992, but his business philosophy continues to be preached at Wal-Marts.
Each store has greeters who meet the customers at the door, and deal with any special
needs they have. Having greeters gives the effect of having more service clerks than
Wal-Mart really has. Compared to some other department stores, Wal-Mart has relatively
Wal-Mart also has the Wal-Mart Foundation, which sponsors numerous good causes.
Among their programs are high school scholarship, fundraising for local hospitals and
sick children, environmental concerns and community "matching grant' outreach.
So, what's not to like about Wal-Mart? The main complaint is that their business style is
extremely aggressive. Wal-Mart's attitudes towards manufacturers and suppliers are:
"You do it our way, or we won't do business with you." This puts Wal-Mart at an
advantage over smaller retailers who don't have the same retailing power. Wal-Mart has been known to demand that its suppliers provide products at discount for Wal-Mart store
openings; levy fines for shipment errors; tell manufacturers what products, styles and
colours to make, etc. Wal-Mart expects product delivery in two days, and expects
manufacturers to cooperate with its promotional and retailing strategies. In effect, any
company that works with Wal-Mart becomes one of their employees.
Any company, which so dominates one area of the market, will have a lot of power. So far,
Wal-Mart has been successful in getting what it wants, and providing customers with
what they want.
Article 25 Yellowstone National Park
The Rocky Mountains of North America are quite old. Even though they were very
volcanic millions of years ago, only a couple was still active today. In Yellowstone
National Park, however, there is a large area of land, which indicates recent volcanic
activity. This area contains hot springs, geysers and mud springs.
Hot springs, like geysers, are caused by underground water being heated by hot rocks
down in the earth. This hot water is then forced to the surface. When the surface rock is
soft or porous, then the hot water bubbles up like a spring. When the surface rock is hard,
then the hot water shoots up through any hole in the rock that it can find. These spurts of
hot water are called geysers. Yellowstone also contains mud pots or mud springs. These
happen when the hot water is turned to steam, and the steam carries mud and clay to the
Yellowstone Park is high up in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. Very few white people
went there until the 1860s. It is said that Indians avoided the area because they thought
that evil spirits lived there.
In 1869, three men from Montana decided to explore this remote area. They were very
impressed with its natural wonders and talked about it to others. Two other exploring
expeditions followed in the next two years. These visitors were so enthusiastic about the
beauty and majesty of Yellowstone that they asked that it be made a national park. At that
time, there was no national park system in America. Nonetheless, in 1872, the American
government agreed to set aside these lands as a public park.
Why were the early visitors to Yellowstone so impressed? First, the scenery is
spectacular. The Yellowstone River has created its own Grand Canyon through years of
eroding its rocky banks. It is the yellow colour of these canyon walls that gave
Yellowstone its name. The area has many waterfalls, including the 308-foot high Lower
Falls in the Yellowstone River. There are many beautiful lakes, and the largest is
Article 26 Student Newspapers
In North America, most colleges and universities, as well as many high schools, have a
student newspaper. These newspapers focus on happenings at the school. They inform
the student population about activities on campus and often include world news, which
is relevant to student interests. In addition, there are opinion pieces by the student
editors, which reflect their views on the school and the world. Sometimes these editorials
oppose the way that the school is being run. Occasionally, school officials will try to shut
down or censor student papers, if they find their writing embarrassing or offensive. But
usually these disagreements are resolved by discussion.
At some colleges, the student newspaper is connected to a professional program in
journalism. But, most of the time, the idea behind the paper is to get students to research
the facts, debate the issues, and learn how to get their opinions expressed. If these
students go on to become professional journalists that is fine, but it is not really
You might wonder whether enough things happen at a college to fill out a weekly paper.
Yes, indeed! Schools and universities reflect the real world. There are often problems
with the budget and cuts to programs. New buildings go up, or are torn down. Policies
change; tuition goes up; classrooms become crowded; and personnel come and go.
University morale and funding often reflect government policies and social attitudes.
These tie the college to the larger world. Editorials often comment on how national and
world events affect the university.
At the same time, there are many things going on within the university. Construction
disturbs classes; offices are broken into; computers are stolen; accidents happen in the
parking lot; students die on the roads during the holidays; sports teams win or lose;
graduation takes place; students and instructors win awards; plays are put on;
distinguished visitors speak; rock bands are in concert.
Then there is always the question of student rights and responsibilities. What kinds of
student behavior are unacceptable? Should the university pay attention to student
activities off-campus? Committees meet, with student representation, to set guidelines
for these matters.
Another issue is who sets the agenda for the university. Corporate sponsors today are
buying exclusive rights to distribute their products on campus. Governments are
expecting universities to follow official policies in order to receive funding. Social groups
are demanding that university policies reflect their special interests.
So there is no shortage of topics for student journalists to address. Of course, they also
write about everything that young people are interested in - music, movies, computers,
sports, travel and pop culture. Student newspapers are an important training group for
democracy. They are also very interesting to read.
Article 27 Canadian Colleges and Universities
Canada has about fifty accredited universities spread across ten provinces. All, except
one, are primarily government-funded. This means that there is considerable uniformity
regarding programs, administration and policy. Private colleges tend to be smaller and
are mostly based on a religious curriculum.
Most universities offer programs in the Humanities, Social Sciences and pure Sciences.
Many have additional faculties such as Education and Physical Education. Many
programs that lead directly to a position in the workplace are given at community
colleges. Community colleges differ from universities because their programs involve
job training and practical experience. For example, they might offer courses in areas
such as computer programming, journalism, photography, social work, dentistry and
nursing. Their programs are considered to be less abstract and academic than university
Many students see university as being more fun than community college. They don't
have to worry immediately about getting a job, and the social life is often better at
university. However, a university degree may be less likely to lead directly to a job.
Nowadays, university programs, which are work-related, such as business
administration, education, child studies and psychology, seem especially popular.
Universities, however, were founded mainly as liberal arts institutions. This means that
their original intent was to prepare people to be well-rounded human beings and
knowledgeable citizens. So nearly all universities have programs in literature, languages,
philosophy, culture, music, history and politics, as well as studies that are more jobrelated.
A pass B.A. or B.Sc. degree in Canada is normally three full years of study after
secondary school. A bachelor degree with honours includes one more year of study. A
Master's degree is a further one or two years. A doctorate usually requires four or more
years. This is similar to the United States, except that their bachelor degree is normally
three years, and their master's degree may be up to three years.
To gain entrance to university you usually need to graduate from secondary school with
a B average. Some programs will require an A average. Tuition costs have gone up in
recent years as governments have handed over less money to colleges and universities.
More students now have to work during the school year to pay their expenses.
Attending college and university is known to be one of the most carefree periods in a
person's life. As long as you keep up with your readings and assignments, you should be
able to avoid major difficulties. Facilities for athletics, student radio and newspapers,
pubs and lounges and generally pleasant surroundings make campus life agreeable. It is
a good time to make friends, learn new skills and take calculated risks. Moreover,
colleges and universities are a good practical investment, as they help to prepare young
people for a changing world.
Article 28 Coffee and Donuts
"Let's go for coffee!" All over North America friends like to meet at the coffee shop. Here
people sit and talk about the day's business, news and sports, personal concerns, shop
talk, or simply gossip. Coffee shops have an informal atmosphere that encourages
conversation. You don't have to dress up either! Students drop in wearing T-shirts and
blue jeans, and sit beside businessmen wearing suits and ties. Many coffee shops are
open 24 hours a day, including Sundays and holidays. That way, people who work at
night or who have trouble sleeping can drop in at any time.
Because coffee and donuts are relatively inexpensive, people feel comfortable sitting for
a while, knowing that they are not spending a lot of money. Although coffee and donuts
are the main items sold at coffee shops, many also serve other beverages and desserts,
and sometimes a light lunch. Many patrons have a favourite kind of coffee or other drink
and will drive past other coffee shops to go to one that serves the flavour they like.
Visitors from other countries are often surprised at how roomy these coffee shops can
be. Some are as large as regular restaurants. Having a nice bit of space around them
encourages people to relax. Some people arrange regular dates and meet every day, or
every week, at the same time. For example, retired friends may get together every
weekday morning at 10:00 am. Others stop every morning at the drive-in line to get their
coffee for work. Even people who have coffee machines at home or at work like to go to
coffee shops to get a special kind of coffee or a favourite treat.
It might seem that the business owners would not make much money just selling a few
items, but in fact, many coffee shops do extremely well, especially if they are located in a
busy traffic area. Then business tends to be steady all through the day. Not only do
people come in and sit down, but there is usually a lot of take-out business as well.
People go to coffee shops not only to socialize with family and friends, but also to
discuss business or treat their employees to a snack. Others go there to read the
newspaper or a favourite magazine. Some people even go there to do work. This article
was written in a coffee shop!
Of course, people who come here usually like coffee and donuts. Coffee is the favourite
hot drink in North America, but most shops also serve tea, hot chocolate and cappuccino,
as well as some other cold beverages. Donuts are usually round, and are small deepfried breads with various toppings. Most donuts have a hole in the middle. Even these
"holes," which are punched out of the donut, can be sold separately, as a kind of minidonut.
Everywhere you go in North America, you will see coffee shops. So take half an hour to
stop in and relax. You'll enjoy the great North American "coffee break!"
Article 29 David Livingstone ? Medical Missionary
During the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901), British people traveled around the whole
world. They charted the seas, mapped out distant countries and studied plants, animals
and people. They also claimed many lands for England. This kind of international travel
was made easier by improved transportation and communication. New inventions such
as steamships, trains, telegraphs and telephones made long distances seem smaller.
Of course, people had different reasons for going to distant lands. Some were
businessmen who saw economic opportunities overseas. Soldiers wanted fame and a
chance to enlarge the British Empire. Big-game hunters wanted to be the first to shoot
strange animals and bring back trophies to England. Scientists intended to study
unknown animals and plants. Missionaries planned to be the first to introduce
Christianity to faraway people.
In 1836 a young Scotsman called David Livingstone began to study medicine in Glasgow.
Livingstone intended to become a medical missionary. This means that he would be a
doctor, as well as a preacher and teacher.
Livingstone (1813-1873) came from a poor family. From an early age, he had worked 14
hours a day in a clothing factory for very little pay. But he was determined to learn. He
took his books with him to the factory and read as he worked. Then, after work, he would
go to his teacher to learn more.
Livingstone's goal was to teach faraway people about Jesus. However, unlike some
missionaries, he was also interested in science, geography and exploring. He had
planned to go to China in 1839, but because of the Opium Wars no missionaries were
being sent there. Instead, he asked to go to South Africa.
Europeans had traveled around the coasts of Africa for hundreds of years. But very few
white people had traveled inland. A missionary named Robert Moffatt who had begun a
mission at Kuruman in the interior inspired Livingstone.
Livingstone arrived in Kuruman in 1841. This was the farthest outpost of white settlement,
and no one seemed to want to go further inland. Livingstone felt that the missionaries
should go to the Africans, rather than waiting for the Africans to come to them. With a
fellow missionary he set out. When they came to an African tribe, they would talk to the
chief and ask permission to preach to his people. Livingstone would also set up a tent
and treat the people who had diseases. After a while, he would move on to the next tribe.
Once Livingstone learned the Bantu language he would talk to many Africans. But
sometimes he needed interpreters. There were many diseases, including malaria and
sleeping sickness. Livingstone suffered much of his life from river fever. He was also so
weak that he rode on the back of an ox.
Livingstone wanted to stop the slave trade. At this time, the slave trade was the most
profitable business in Africa. Livingstone hoped that if other kinds of trade were
developed, then slavery could be abolished. In order to open up trade, he wanted to find
an easy route into the center of Africa.
Livingstone kept going further into the interior. He was probably the first European to
cross the Kalahari Desert before reaching Lake Ngami in present-day Botswana. Not long
after, he traveled further inland. He explored the sources of the Zambesi and Kasai rivers
and eventually reached the west coast of Africa at Luanda, Angola.
Livingstone was being criticized for neglecting missionary work in order to explore.
Livingstone replied that he was opening up the continent for missionaries. Meanwhile, he
was becoming famous as a great explorer.
The British government commissioned him to explore the Zambesi River. They hoped
that ships could sail up the river into the interior. Unfortunately, the Zambesi had too
many rapids. However, Livingstone did find a route up the Shire River to Lake Nyassa. He
continued to struggle against the slave trade, which was now being taken over by Arabs.
Livingstone died in Africa in 1873. He was the first white man to explore Botswana,
Zimbabwe, Zambia, Malawi and surrounding areas. He was not only a great explorer, but
also a fine doctor and a good missionary. Nowadays, the countries that Livingstone
visited are nearly all Christian--just as he hoped they would be.
Article 30 Favourite Cookies
North Americans are known for their "sweet tooth." This means that they like snacks with
lots of sugar. Americans drink a lot of coffee, tea and hot chocolate, and usually they
have something sweet with their drink. Cookies are one of America's favourite desserts.
The word "cookie" comes from a Dutch word meaning "little cake." People from Europe
brought their favourite recipes with them when they came to America. The English
brought their custom of having tea in the afternoon. Usually with their tea they would
have cakes or biscuits. Biscuits are usually hard wafers like, for example, ginger snaps.
In fact, the Italian slang word for Englishman is "cake eater."
In the early days, all cookies were homemade. But, in the late nineteenth Century,
biscuits began to be manufactured in large quantities by machine. In 1912, the National
Biscuit Company (Nabisco) in the U.S.A. introduced Oreo cookies. This cookie has a rich
cr?e vanilla filling between two crispy chocolate wafers. This product was designed to
meet the demand for an English-style biscuit. Oreos were good to dunk in a drink, to eat
whole, to eat in parts, or to use in cooking. Oreos have become both America's and the
world's favourite commercial cookie. New varieties of Oreos are added regularly to the
Although commercial biscuits like Oreos are very popular, many people prefer homebaked ones. In fact, there is a whole line of commercial cookies called "home-style,"
which try to imitate homemade cookies. The most popular cookie in America can be
either bought in a package or baked at home. These are chocolate chip cookies.
Ruth and Kenneth Wakefield operated the Toll House Inn in Whitman, Massachusetts.
One day in 1930, Mrs. Wakefield ran out of baking chocolate for her baking cookies. She
broke up a chocolate bar and added the pieces to her cookie mix. She expected that the
chocolate bits would melt into the dough when she baked them. But they didn't. Soon
chocolate chip cookies were being made commercially by adding small chunks of
chocolate to regular chocolate cookie dough. Lots of people like to make their own by
adding commercial chocolate chips to their dough.
Now chocolate chip cookies are the most popular kind of cookie in North America. Over
seven billion are eaten annually here. Half of all the cookies baked in American homes
are chocolate chip cookies.
Experiments in baking and packaging have led to new kinds of cookies. Recently, soft
cookies have become very popular. Since they are packaged in foil, they can stay fresh
and soft for many months. It seems likely that the love of cookies will be around for a
Article 31 Florence Nightingale
It could be said that Florence Nightingale was responsible for inventing modern nursing.
Indeed, Nightingale did open up the professions to women generally. Her example and
influence during the mid to late nineteenth Century were an important factor in opening
doors to women.
Nightingale's own life reflects many of these changes. She was born in 1820, and was
one of two daughters of a wealthy English family. Her mother was a beautiful society lady
who had once turned down a favoured suitor because he was not wealthy enough. She
wanted both her daughters to be socially popular and to marry rich and important men.
Florence's father ensured that she had a good education. But she was frustrated
because girls and women were always under parental supervision. She felt called to a life
of action, but her family insisted that she divide her time between being with her family
and attending social functions. She was not allowed to do anything on her own.
When she was 16, Nightingale said that God spoke to her and called her to do His work.
But Florence didn't know what work she was being called to do. Years passed away while
she sat with her mother and sister, or attended dances and concerts or travelled to
Nightingale became more angry and rebellious. She offended her family and friends by
refusing to marry several prominent men who wanted to marry her. By the time she was
24, she had decided to be a nurse.
But how did one become a nurse? At that time, the profession didn't seem promising.
The only respectable nurses were those women in religious orders that ministered to the
patient's spiritual health, but were not trained in medicine. The majority of nurses were
poor, untrained women who were suspected of being too fond of men or alcohol, or both.
In fact, one hospital preferred to hire unwed mothers as nurses because they had no
reputations to lose.
Nightingale's family was horrified by her plans. Their opposition delayed her plans but
could not stop them. In 1850 she visited a hospital in Germany for the first time. In 1853,
she was appointed superintendent of a women's nursing home in London. But, Florence
was still waiting for her true calling.
In 1855, the Times of London was printing reports from the Crimean War. France and
England were fighting Russia in the Crimean Peninsula. After one allied victory, the
wounded French soldiers were well taken care of, but the wounded English soldiers were
left to die. Back in England there was a public outcry. It was Florence's opportunity. She
was soon on her way to Istanbul, Turkey, with 38 nurses.
Scutari, Turkey, was the hospital where the British wounded were brought. This so-called
hospital was a death pit, where 42 out of every 100 men died. The army was unwilling to
listen to Miss Nightingale or to let her tend the wounded. She had to wait until conditions
became so bad that the regular medical officers were overwhelmed. As soon as the army
turned to her, she immediately went to work. She had the entire hospital cleaned, a new
kitchen set up, and a good water supply obtained. The death rate dropped to 22 out of
every 1,000. Nightingale became famous overnight.
Although her efforts in the Crimean War injured her health, she continued her work back
in London. She published a 1,000-page report on medical conditions in the British Army,
several books on nursing and her own proposals and suggestions. She also set up a
training school for nurses. Long before her death in 1910, she had seen nursing become
a well-established profession. Almost single-handedly she had helped to bring about
proper treatment of the sick and injured.
Article 32 Harriet Tubman
Before the American Civil War, the economy of the Southern States was based on the use
of slave labour. The social and political leaders of the Old South were the plantation
owners. Many of these owned hundreds of black slaves. The slaves were mainly used to
pick crops like cotton and tobacco.
Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 in the State of Maryland. As a girl of seven, she was
sent into the fields to work with the adult slaves. The slaves worked from sunrise to
sunset picking the crops. Often they sang songs while they worked.
Slaves were not taught to read or write. It was feared that reading and writing would help
slaves to escape the plantations. Harriet Tubman was illiterate. Later in life, when she
was in danger of being captured, she picked up a book and pretended to read it. This
fooled the bounty hunters.
When she was 15, Harriet helped another slave to escape. The overseer was so angry
with her that he hit her over the head with an iron weight. Harriet was knocked
unconscious for many days. All the rest of her life she suffered from headaches and
sudden sleeping spells.
Harriet escaped from the plantation to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Since Pennsylvania
was not a slave state, Harriet was fairly safe there. She was able to return secretly to the
plantation and bring the rest of her family to freedom.
There were already people working to bring black slaves up from the South to freedom.
These people, both white and black, used the language of the railroad. Escaped slaves
were called passengers, safe houses were called stations, and the guides were called
conductors. Harriet soon became a conductor in the Underground Railway.
In 1850, the American government passed a second Fugitive Slave Act. This put more
pressure on Northern States to return escaped slaves to the South. Because of this, the
Underground Railway went further north to Canada.
In 1793, Upper Canada (Ontario) had passed a law, bringing a gradual stop to slavery. In
1834, slavery was abolished in the whole British Empire. A lot of escaped slaves had
come to Canada before 1850, but now nearly all escaped slaves tried to go there.
Harriet Tubman rented a house in St. Catharines, Ontario. This provided a shelter for new
arrivals. Harriet made about eleven trips from Canada to the U.S.A. during these years. In
all, she brought back about 300 people.
Escaped slaves had to travel by night and suffered hardships in bad weather. They had
to hide during the day wherever they could. Harriet did not allow any passengers to turn
back. That might endanger the whole Underground Railway.
When the slave owners heard about Harriet, they offered a reward for her capture. But no
one caught her, or turned her in. When the Civil War broke out in 1861, she acted as a
spy for the Northern States. After the war, she married a black American soldier, Nelson
Davis. In 1869, a book was written about Harriet Tubman.
Black slaves knew Harriet as "Moses." The Bible tells the store of how Moses led the
people of Israel out of slavery in Egypt. He led them north to Palestine. In the same way,
Harriet Tubman delivered many of her people from slavery and led them north to freedom.
Article 33 Hernias Repaired Here
A hernia occurs when there is a tear or weakness in the muscle layers of the abdomen.
This allows the intestines to push forward into the gap. Usually the person feels some
discomfort, and may notice an egg-shaped swelling. In a few cases, the muscle layers
may clamp down on the protruding intestine, and cut off its oxygen supply. This can
result in death, if medical help is not readily available.
Hernias are more common in men than women, and are often related to lifting heavy
materials. Although most hernias are not a serious threat to health, they usually get
worse over time. The only cure is surgery to repair the cut, tear or weakness.
As with any surgery, time in hospital is usually required for recovery. This proved to be a
problem in Canada during World War II. Many young men were declared unfit for military
service because they had hernias. During the war, there was a shortage of doctors and
beds for hernia repair.
A Toronto doctor, Dr. Edward Shouldice, decided to address this problem. He personally
operated on seventy of these young men, using a technique of his own. This "Shouldice
Technique" allowed the patients a quicker recovery time than the usual method. It also
had a much lower rate of complications and failures.
After the war, Dr. Shouldice opened his own hernia clinic for the public. In 1953, a second
hospital was started in Thornhill, just north of Toronto, and today all surgery is done
The Shouldice Hospital is located on a beautiful piece of land with a valley on one side
and a golf course on the other. The large grounds have wonderful gardens and flowering
trees. There are nature paths for patients to walk on. The building itself is not a regular
hospital, but more like a hotel or residence, where patients can play the piano, shoot pool,
play shuffleboard, or practice their putting.
The hospital now has 89 beds, and an average of 30 hernia operations are performed
daily. Since all the surgeons are specialists, their level of skill is very high, and less than
1% of operations need to be corrected. (The worldwide rate of failure is around 20%.)
For patients, the good news is that everything at the hospital is directed to repairing their
hernia, and aiding their recovery as quickly as possible. The staff encourages its patients
to walk and exercise within four or five hours of surgery. Patients usually stay on for
several more days, until they are fully recovered and ready to go home. Shouldice's best
advertisements are his satisfied customers.
Hernia patients come not only from Canada and the United States, but also from many
countries of the world to receive the best possible treatment. Shouldice remains the
most famous hospital in the world devoted entirely to the repair and treatment of hernias.
Article 34 Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews, born Julia Elizabeth Wells, was born on October 1, 1935. She lived in a
small town called Walton-on-the-Thames in England, which is south of London. Her
father Ted Wells was a teacher, and mother Barbara was a pianist and piano teacher. She
also played piano for her sister's dancing school. Julie learned ballet and tap as a toddler
from her Aunt Joan Morris. By the time Julie was three, she could read and write. When
Julie was four, her parents divorced, and Barbara married Ted Andrews (a performer
during the war and an excellent tenor). He soon began giving Julie singing lessons. At
seven years of age, Julie had an unbelievable range of four octaves. She soon changed
her last name to "Andrews," the last name of her stepfather.
As she grew older, Julie became one of England's most popular performers. In early
childhood, Julie loved to play with her two younger half-brothers, but soon went on to
stardom. At age twelve, Julie was cast in a London play and stopped the show with her
remarkable talent. She starred in many different BBC productions during the forties.
Later, she starred in many Broadway plays such as The Boyfriend, My Fair Lady, and
Camelot. It was the latter play that Walt Disney made a special trip to New York to see,
and he decided then and there that Julie was perfect for the role of Mary Poppins in the
film of the same name. Mary Poppins was the high-spirited, magical nanny of Jane and
Michael Banks, two small British children. Julie also starred in many other films, such as
The Americanization of Emily, Hawaii, Thoroughly Modern Millie, and my personal
favourite, The Sound of Music. In this production she plays Maria, the lively governess of
Austrian Naval Captain Georg von Trapp's seven children: Liesl, Fredric, Louisa, Kurt,
Brigitta, Marta and Gretl. Another of Julie's talents is writing. Two of her best-known
books are The Last of the Really Great Whangdoodles, and Mandy.
Julie also has five children. A daughter, Emma Kate Walton, from her marriage to Tony
Walton; four children from her second marriage to Blake Edwards, two of whom were
from Blake's previous marriage, Jennifer and Geoffrey; and two who were adopted from
Vietnam, Amy and Joanna.
In 1998, tragedy struck Julie. She lost her extraordinary talent for singing due to surgery
on her throat in order to remove a benign tumor.
A year later, she made an attempt to sing again; however, her voice will never be the
same. Julie has recently been on Britain's Royal Honour List and is now a Dame.
Article 35 Potato Chips and Corn Chips
The story goes that the potato chip was invented in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. in 1853. Multimillionaire Cornelius Vanderbilt complained to the chef that his fried potatoes were
sliced too thickly. Chef George Crum responded by slicing the potatoes paper thin and
frying them in hot oil. The potato chip became an instant success.
Many companies have made large profits on chips. The most successful brands are
associated with the Frito-Lay Company. Herman W. Lay of Nashville, Tennessee, was
selling potato chips from the back of his car in the early 1930s. He soon became a
successful distributor for a brand of potato chips, which were made in Atlanta, Georgia.
When that company ran into financial problems, Lay arranged to buy them out. It now
became H. W. Lay and Company.
Meanwhile in Texas, Elmer Doolin was trying to sell chips made from corn dough. This
was an old Mexican recipe, which Doolin had found in San Antonio, Texas. At first, these
Fritos corn chips were made in Mr. Doolin's mother's kitchen. It took a few years before
they sold very well. Mr. Doolin moved the company to Dallas and began to expand his
market. In 1945, he granted the H. W. Lay Co. the rights to make Fritos corn chip for the
American southeast. In 1961, the two companies merged to become Frito-Lay Inc. In 1965,
Frito-Lay merged with Pepsi to become PepsiCo. Inc., one of the largest snack food and
beverage companies in the world.
In 2000, Frito-Lay sold 58% of all the snack chips in the U.S.A. In Canada and the United
States, Frito-Lay products had sales of $9.9 billion. The most popular brand was Lay's
potato chips, followed by Doritos, Ruffles, Tostitos, Cheetos, and Fritos. Internationally,
Frito-Lay has 28% of the market worldwide. That amounts to $5.9 billion annually.
Why are potato chips and corn chips so popular? Well, they are versatile. You can eat
them by themselves or with a sandwich for lunch. They can replace other forms of
potatoes and corn. They can also come in various flavours. For example, potato chip
flavours include ketchup, salt and vinegar, barbeque, dill pickle and cheddar. Potato
chips can be thick or thin, ridged or flat, spicy or bland. Chips can be made from many
things besides potatoes. There is corn dough and tortilla dough, of course. But chips can also be made from sweet potatoes, parsnips, taro root, peppers and other vegetables.
One caution about potato chips is that they are not a good source of nutrition. Parents
who send their children to school with a bag of potato chips for lunch need to remember
that these are just a snack. Because snack chips usually contain a lot of fat, they can
also lead to weight gain. It is better not to eat snack chips too often, and not to eat them
instead of healthier foods.
In Canada nearly $2 billion is spent on snack food every year and half of this is spent on
chips. People are always looking for new flavours to try. Spicy chips are gaining in
popularity. The snack chip industry just keeps on growing.
Article 36 The Stratford Festival
The Shakespearean festival in Stratford, Ontario, is one of the greatest theatrical festivals
in the world. This is the story how this small town, which was far from any theatrical
centers, became so important for drama. For most of its history, Stratford was the county
town for the local farming region. It was also a railway center. But it was hardly known for
An Irishman who opened an inn there founded Stratford in 1832. He called his roadhouse
"Shakespeare's Inn," after England's great dramatist. Soon the little town became known
as Stratford, after the town in England where Shakespeare was born. The local river was
likewise called the Avon after the English river.
The little town grew gradually and became the local center for government and law.
Stratford people seemed to enjoy the association with Shakespeare. Many streets were
given Shakespearean names such as Arden Park, Portia Boulevard, Romeo Street and
Viola Court. Local schools received names such as Hamlet Public School or Falstaff
School. Still, there was no attempt at Shakespearean theatre in Stratford, Ontario.
In 1913, the Canadian Pacific Railway threatened to take over the town. They proposed a
railway line running through the center of Stratford, which would have taken over much
of the town's parkland. The townspeople voted down this proposal. Instead, they
expanded the parkland along the Avon River. These parks were enhanced with gardens
and, in 1918, a pair of swans was added. These swans were an imitation of the swans on
In 1950, it appeared that the railway would be closing some of its workshops in Stratford.
The town was looking for ideas that might lead to new employment opportunities. This
was when one citizen, Tom Patterson, suggested that the town sponsor a drama festival.
Patterson was able to get Irish director, Tyrone Guthrie, to come to Stratford in 1952.
Guthrie agreed to head up the 1953 season. Everyone in Stratford pitched in to raise the
necessary money and prepare the stage. Since there was no time to put up a building,
the plays were staged under a huge tent. Two plays were put on during a six-week
season, and with great success. In 1957, a permanent theatre was built.
The Stratford season in 2001 runs for more than six months, from late April to early
November. There are fourteen plays in production at three different theatres. Altogether
there are 668 performances, with a total attendance of 580,000 people. About 40% of the
audience comes from the United States.
Tom Patterson's plan to ease unemployment in Stratford has worked well. The festival
has helped to create nearly 6,000 jobs and generate wages and salaries of $110 million
annually. In total, the festival brings about $170 million of revenue into the Stratford area.
Of course, to the audiences who come back every year, the main attraction is seeing
some of the best Shakespearean theatre in the world. The Stratford Festival Company is
Canada's leading acting company, and many of its actors have become internationally
Article 37 The Two Cultures
In 1956, English writer and scientist C.P.Snow wrote an essay on "The Two Cultures." By
this, he meant that in the West there is a scientific culture and a literary culture.
Scientists do not talk very much to literary men and vice versa. Neither group seems to
know, nor want to know, very much about the other.
Snow argues that the scientific people and the literary people are moving further and
further apart. Few scientists or engineers read literature; very few writers or intellectuals
know or care anything about science.
This, Snow thinks, is a major problem in the world today. Literary culture seems to be
anti-science and anti-technology. This affects Western reluctance to train more scientists
The standard of living in the West, and throughout the world, depends on having
scientists and engineers. Nonetheless, relatively little effort is given to encouraging and
developing these areas of education.
Westerners, who are part of the literary culture, do not encourage or understand the
scientific revolution. As a result, they are insensitive to the desire of Third World peoples
to improve their lives through technology.
Snow talks about how the standard of living in England has improved since 1800. Snow's
grandfather did not go far in school, but did learn to read and write. Living in 1900, he
realized that he was better off than his grandfather who lived in the early 1800s. Snow's
great-great-grandfather was a farm labourer who didn't know how to read or write. Snow
feels that a similar transformation could happen even in very poor countries. It could
happen in a short time if the West supplied capital and engineers.
Snow believes that it is the industrial revolution that has transformed the West. This is
what has allowed the farm labourers to go to school and to learn employable skills. In
1800, only a small proportion of society could expect to live well. Now nearly everyone
has access to education and training. The same industrial revolution can happen in Third
World countries. It is the only way to improve the lot of the poor.
Snow agrees that most scientists and engineers do not read novels or cultivate the arts.
However, he doesn't consider this to be as dangerous as when literary people ignore
science and technology. Science and technology are too important to our standard of
living to be ignored; our education systems have to be changed to reflect our need of
Snow's article was quite controversial. Not everyone agreed with him that science and
technology are being ignored by our educational system. But Snow certainly has a point
when he says that scientific people and literary people view the world differently. These
two different mindsets often lead to conflict in the workplace. Snow may be right that it is
too easy for literary-minded students to ignore science, and scientifically minded
students to ignore literature.
Article 38 The War That Both Sides Won
Today, the 3000 mile boundary between Canada and the United States is known as "the
longest undefended boundary in the world." But for three years in a row--1812, 1813 and
1814--U.S. armies invaded Canada. When both sides failed to win a clear victory, and the
costs of the war kept growing, the two countries decided that peace was the best policy.
On June 18, 1812, the United States declared war on Great Britain. The United States had
proclaimed their independence from Britain in 1776--36 years earlier. There were still bad
feelings between the two countries. Great Britain was not treating the United States as an
equal independent country. British ships were stopping American ships from trading with
Europe. British sailors went aboard American ships looking for deserters from the British
Navy. If an American sailor could not prove that he was an American, he was taken to
work for the British.
At the same time, the population of the United States was expanding. Americans wanted
to move west into lands held by various American Indian tribes. Some Americans felt that
Britain was encouraging the Indians to fight them and was supplying guns to the Indians.
In 1812, Canada was made up of a small number of British colonies just north of the
American border. Americans felt that it would be easy to take over Canada; then
Canadian land would provide homes for their growing population. Since Americans
outnumbered Canadians ten to one, the U.S. government thought that no one in Canada
would dare to oppose them. Moreover, Britain was fighting a terrible war in Europe
against Napoleon, the Emperor of France, and could not spare any troops to help defend
But, in 1812, Canada had one advantage over the U.S.A.--good leadership. British
General Isaac Brock had served in Canada for ten years. He knew how to inspire both his
own soldiers and the ordinary people of Canada to fight for their country. He was a bold
and energetic leader who moved quickly to attack American positions before they could
Brock found a valuable ally in the American Indian Chief Tecumseh. Tecumseh had been
trying to unite the scattered groups of Indians to fight together against American
expansion. He convinced the Indians that their best chance for success was to join the
British and Canadians against the Americans. Although both Brock and Tecumseh were
killed in battles, their example continued to inspire the defenders of Canada to fight
against the American invasions. Before the end of 1814, all American forces had been
driven out of Canada.
By 1814, Britain had defeated the French Emperor Napoleon. Now it was the turn of the
United States to be invaded. A large British force attacked the heart of the United States,
and burned the government buildings at Washington. Another British force attacked the
U.S.A. near the mouth of the Mississippi River, but it was defeated at the Battle of New
Both sides were tired of fighting by this time, and a peace treaty was signed on
December 24, 1814. This agreement restored everything to the way it had been when the
war began. Although this really meant that no one had won the war, both sides claimed
victory. The Americans felt that they had gained full recognition of their independence.
Britain would no longer board their ships, or encourage the Indians to fight them.
Canadians felt that they had shown Americans that they wanted to develop their own
country in their own way, separate from the United States. But the biggest result of the
war was the decision by both countries never to fight each other again.
Article 39 North American Death and Burial
Most people in North American die either in hospital or at home. When someone dies,
arrangements are made with a funeral home to get the body and prepare it for burial.
Funeral homes are private businesses. They usually handle most or all aspects of a
funeral, except for providing the burial plot. That usually has to be purchased separately.
Funeral homes may operate in many kinds of buildings. Old roomy private homes and
new modern one-level buildings are common types. When the funeral director receives
the body, his staff embalms it so it will not decay quickly and will look lifelike at the
funeral service. For one or two days before the burial, friends, relatives and
acquaintances are invited to visit the funeral home and pay their respects to the dead
person. The deceased person is usually dressed in their best clothes, and lying on their
back in a coffin. A coffin is a large wooden or metal chest designed to hold the body.
Members of the dead person's immediate family usually act as hosts for the funeral home
visitation. They greet the mourners and talk to them about the deceased. Usually, there
are happy photographs of the dead person near the coffin. Gifts of flowers also surround
the coffin. Usually the mourners are asked to sign a guest book.
The funeral service may take place at a church, if the deceased person wanted that.
Frequently, however, the service is held at a chapel at the funeral home. Attending a
funeral is considered a sign of respect, and people will often travel a long distance to
attend. Usually friends and relatives will take a day off work for the occasion. Notices are
put in the newspaper for several days before, so that people will know when to come.
A minister or priest usually conducts the funeral service. There will be hymns, prayers,
and perhaps a sermon, like a regular church service. Sometimes, the minister will speak
at length about the dead person. Sometimes, a member of the family does this.
Opportunity is allowed for other people to talk about their memories of the dead person.
At the end of the service, the coffin is wheeled out to a waiting car, called a hearse, which
drives the dead person to the burial place. The mourners go to their cars and follow the
hearse to the cemetery.
At the cemetery, a hole has already been dug to receive the coffin. Usually there is a
short ceremony at the grave. Sometimes, flowers are put on top of the coffin as it is
lowered into the grave. A handful of soil is tossed on the coffin, indicating burial. Usually
the mourners leave before the cemetery workers cover the coffin with earth. Then the
mourners may all go back to a church hall or restaurant for a meal.
A funeral can be quite costly. Even an inexpensive coffin can be several thousand dollars.
Sometimes, the deceased will be placed in an expensive rental coffin for the visitation
and funeral, but buried in a less expensive coffin. Even so, a full funeral rarely costs less
than $5,000, and usually quite a lot more. And this does not include the price of the burial
plot or the stone grave marker. Sometimes poor people are buried at government
It is traditional in North American to bury the whole body in the ground. However,
cremation is becoming more popular. The advantage of cremation is that it is less
expensive, uses less land, and it appeals to people who don't want an elaborate funeral.
Some people may wonder why so much attention is paid to a dead person. But funerals
are really for the living. They are a way of saying goodbye to the dead person and receiving mutual support and encouragement from friends and family. Some funeral
homes help to organize grief counselling or support groups to grieving family members.
Usually the funeral service is performed in the Christian tradition and refers to the hope
of resurrection or rebirth from the dead that Christians believe in. It is now becoming
common for people to plan their own funeral service before they die. And usually
attempts are made to make the service appropriate to the person who died. This makes it
more satisfying and memorable for the family and friends.
Article 40 Anastasia and the Russian Revoluion
The twentieth century brought many changes to traditional cultures around the world.
Some of the most radical changes occurred in the Russian Empire, which had one of the
oldest monarchies in Europe. In 1917-18 the rule of the Tsars was replaced by the world's
first communist government led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. No one was more affected by
these changes than Anastasia, the Tsar's youngest daughter.
Between 1895 and 1901, Tsar Nicholas II and his wife Alexandra, became the parents of
four beautiful and healthy daughters - Olga, Tatiana, Marie and Anastasia. However, since
a girl could not inherit the throne of Russia, it was important for Alexandra to give birth
to a son. Finally, in 1904, the Tsar and Tsarina had a son, Aleksei.
This event, which should have made the whole family very happy, proved to be a source
of great sorrow. Aleksei was soon found to have an incurable disease. This disease,
hemophilia, meant that Aleksei regularly suffered from uncontrollable internal and
external bleeding which left him very weak. This caused anxiety for all the family,
especially his mother and father.
The Tsar and Tsarina loved their children. The girls, who didn't have to worry about
becoming rulers, led a fairly carefree existence. Anastasia and her sisters lived in a
palace with hundreds of servants. They attended many society parties with their parents.
The most elaborate parties were the grand balls, where everyone dressed in their finest
clothes and danced all through the night.
The absolute rule of the Tsar was not popular with everybody. The majority of the
population was poor peasant farmers who could barely keep themselves and their
families alive. If they moved into the city to get jobs in the factories, they had to work
long hours for very low wages, and live in slum conditions. Popular opposition forced
the Tsar in 1905 to give up some of his power to an elected parliament.
None of the girls married. They all lived a happy life together. They moved from palace to
palace, attended by their private tutors, visiting the beach, and sailing on the royal yacht.
Anastasia was the clown of the family. She didn't like schoolwork, but she enjoyed
painting and photography. Many of her photos of the royal family in happy times survive.
Soon the Tsar's problems worsened. The Empress Alexandra worried about her son and
became ill. War with Germany broke out in 1914, and the Russians suffered many defeats
and losses. In March 1917, there was popular revolution, and the Tsar was deposed.
From that time on, the royal family was prisoners. At first, they were treated kindly, but in
November, the Bolsheviks or communists gained control of the revolution. Lenin and his
followers hated the Tsar.
The royal family had been living in Tobolsk in Siberia. Because of fears that they might
escape, they were brought back to Ekaterinburg in the Ural region. Here, after midnight
on June 19, 1918, the entire royal family was shot by the Bolsheviks.
To some, this news was too dreadful to be believed. The thought that the Tsar's lively and
beautiful daughters had been killed was too hard to bear. Within a couple of years, a
woman who went by the name of Anna Anderson appeared in western Europe. She
claimed to be Anastasia. Some believed her story and some did not.
With the fall of the Soviet Union, it was possible to investigate the murder of the royal
family. It was also possible to prove that Anna Anderson was not the real Anastasia. After
a long search, the bodies of Anastasia and Aleksei were found. They had died with the
rest of the family. A great mystery was finally solved.
Article 41 Australian Origins
In many countries, leading families proudly trace their ancestors back to some
significant group of people. In the U..S.A., prominent individuals may boast that their
family came over on the Mayflower in 1620.
In England, ladies and gentlemen are happy to announce that their ancestors came to
Britain with William the Conqueror in 1066. In Australia, however, many leading families
are reluctant to talk about their origins. In fact, many years ago, one Australian city
burned its early records, so that no one would know who their ancestors were. The
reason for this is that Australia began its history as a British penal colony.
In eighteenth century England, there was a large gap between the rich and the poor. To
make matters worse, many farmers had been forced off their land by powerful
landowners. These homeless people wandered to the cities, where employment was
often hard to find. Frequent wars gave temporary employment to young men as soldiers
and sailors, but when the war was over, they were no better off than before.
As a result, theft was extremely common. To protect themselves, the upper classes made
theft punishable by hanging. The problem with this was that juries were often reluctant to
hang someone for stealing something small, and might declare the person "not guilty."
For example, if a man or woman stole a loaf of bread to feed their children, the jury might
just let them go. To prevent this, the courts came up with a new category of punishment--
exile or "transportation." If the judge or jury was reluctant to sentence the accused to
death, they would ship them far away from England across the seas. However, if the
person was found back in England again, he or she would be hanged.
At first, England sent its convicts to America's Thirteen Colonies. However, when the
United States declared its independence in 1776, this was no longer possible. England
considered sending criminals to West Africa, but the land and climate were considered
unsuitable. So finally Great Britain decided to use the huge, almost uninhabited, country
of Australia. At this time, not a single European was living anywhere on the continent.
In the fall of 1786, a fleet of English ships began to take convicts on board. This process
continued till the sailing date of May 13, 1787. Many British jails had been cleared of both
male and female prisoners.
Since the convicts were technically under a sentence of death, there was little concern
for making them comfortable. At first, the convicts were chained below decks, but later
some were released when well out to sea. One man had been sentenced for the theft of a
winter coat; another for stealing cucumbers from a garden; a third for carrying off a
sheep. Among the women, one was guilty of stealing a large cheese; another of taking
several yards of cloth.
These ships known as "The First Fleet" carried 1,442 convicts, sailors, marines and officers. The fleet finally arrived at Botany Bay on January 10, 1788. Later that month,
they moved down to Sydney Harbour. No preparations whatsoever had been made. The
forests came right up to the shore. Soon, the fleet members were cutting down trees and
trying to put up tents. It was June 1790 before further supplies arrived from England.
Meanwhile, many convicts suffered from sickness, aggravated by lack of good food.
In conclusion, Australians need not be ashamed of their origins. In time, great things
were achieved, in spite of the almost complete lack of help from the English government.
Many ex- convicts became respectable settlers who began prosperous farms and
businesses. The members of the First Fleet, whether convicts or not, deserve to be
honoured as the founders of Australia.
Article 42 Casa Loma
Many people visit Europe and see the old castles left from the days of knighthood. Very
few return home with plans to build their own castle. Toronto businessman Henry Pellatt
actually built such a castle - Casa Loma.
Pellatt was born in Kingston, Ontario in 1859, but the family soon moved to Toronto. His
father opened Toronto's first stock broking firm in 1866. Pellatt Sr. became part of
Toronto's financial elite. And Henry Pellatt eventually joined his father in business.
The young Pellatt was especially attracted by the military and the British armed forces.
When Henry was 18, he joined the Queen's Own Rifles, a militia unit. He was soon one of
the soldiers sent to suppress a railway strike. At 21, he was made an officer, and
gradually moved up through the ranks, eventually becoming brigadier general.
Meanwhile, Henry was learning the stock broking business. He soon showed
considerable ability at forming new companies. Electricity was a recent invention, and
Pellatt hoped to be among the foremost developers. In 1883, he founded the Toronto
Electric Light Company, and later was an owner of the Toronto Electric Railway. He also
made money as a land speculator in the Canadian West. Unlike many businessmen of the
time, however, Pellatt believed in community service. He sponsored many charitable
organizations and supported various good causes.
In spite of his business dealings, Pellatt found time to tour England and Europe regularly.
He brought back ideas for a "castle on the hill." Pellatt's castle, however, would not be a
damp, drafty castle of the Middle Ages. It would have all the latest technology.
Construction of "Casa Loma" began in 1910 and was completed in 1914. Outwardly, it
looked like a mediaeval castle, but inside it was comfortable and luxurious. There were
98 rooms, three bowling alleys, 30 bathrooms, 25 fireplaces and 5,000 electric lights. It
had an electric elevator and an indoor swimming pool. There was a library of 100,000
books, a temperature-controlled wine cellar, a shooting gallery, and a large art collection.
Pellatt ordered only the most expensive materials and employed the best craftsmen. The
cost of all this was $3.5 million, a huge sum in those days.
Pellatt and his wife liked to entertain. They often opened up Casa Loma for special events.
Sometimes, he would invite all 1,000 men from the Queen's Own Rifles over for the
weekend. The Pellatts also held parties for the staff.
Pellatt had hoped that Casa Loma would be the center of an extensive subdivision. He
hoped that wealthy people would build grand homes nearby, and so he had bought up
land near his castle. Unfortunately for Pellatt, most of the people coming to Toronto were
poor immigrants who couldn't afford large houses. Pellatt was unable to sell his land holdings, and his income declined. In 1924, Pellatt turned Casa Loma over to the City of
Toronto because he could not pay his property tax.
All the contents of Casa Loma went on auction soon after. His $1.5 million collection of
art and artifacts sold for only $250,000. Now Casa Loma is a leading Toronto tourist
attraction. "The castle in the middle of the city" has 400,000 visitors each year. It is the
closest thing in North America to a real European castle.
Article 43 Charlie Brown
On October 2, 1950, a new comic strip appeared in American newspapers. The "hero" of
the strip was a round-headed kid named Charlie Brown. In the very first cartoon, two
young schoolmates watch Charlie Brown walking by, and one comments, "Well! Here
comes ol' Charlie Brown.Yes, Sir! Good ol' Charlie Brown. How I hate him!"
This comic strip was to become one of the most popular in history. Its creator, Charles M.
Schultz, drew the strip for 50 years until his death. But reruns of "Peanuts" still appear
regularly in the newspaper. What are some of the characteristics of Charlie Brown and
his friends that have made the cartoon popular?
Charlie Brown is an unlikely hero. Other kids don't like being around him because the
things he does never seem to work out properly. Kids want to be with someone who is
good-looking, popular and successful, so that they can feel a part of his success. Charlie
Brown is always worrying, hardly ever up-beat, afraid of failure, and always making
mistakes. His kite gets snagged in a tree, he needs counseling from Lucy, his dog
Snoopy is more popular than he is, and the little red-haired girl never notices him. In
short, Charlie Brown is a "loser."
Charlie Brown illustrates all the insecurities that kids have. Many of these anxieties carry
over into adult life. Sometimes, they reflect problems in the life of the comic strip's
creator, Charles M. Schulz. Schulz suffered from depression much of his life and had a
difficult time in school. He was not very popular with his classmates. Humour and
laughter are often a way of dealing with problems. And in the "Peanuts" strip, the world
can laugh at all the silly little things that people do.
Because of its honest way of dealing with problems, Charlie Brown and his friends are
more interesting than the average comic strip characters. The characters represent adult
personality types. Charlie Brown is "wishy-washy," and is afraid to do things for fear of
failure. Lucy is a pushy overbearing female, who thinks she knows it all. Linus, her
younger brother, is intellectual but insecure. He still clings to his baby blanket for
security. Schroeder is preoccupied with Beethoven's music to the exclusion of
Sally, Charlie Brown's younger sister, combines both a romantic attachment to Linus and
a desire for material things. Peppermint Patty is a tomboy who loves baseball, but
nonetheless has a romantic crush on Charlie Brown. Snoopy, the dog, represents a cool
detached inventive individual who also relies on basic creature comforts.
These characters add up to a "human comedy." In the comic strip, we can see ourselves
and the people around us: making mistakes, getting second chances, but tending to do
the same things over again.
Behind the humour of "Peanuts" there is a serious message. Words can hurt.
Relationships are important. Truth is difficult to find. Criticism is too common. Greed can
easily overpower us. These messages are both timeless and timely. "Peanuts" has also been turned into television specials and several movies. Snoopy
stuffed toys are popular all over the world. A huge industry has grown from a simple
comic strip. Perhaps this means that, while we all secretly want to be "winners," we
really identify more closely with the Charlie Browns of this world!
Article 44 Conquering Lake Ontario
In 490 B.C. the Greek runner Phidippides ran the 24 miles from Marathon to Athens to
announce an Athenian victory. His endurance was so much admired that runners ever
since have attempted to run similar long "Marathon" distances.
In the twentieth century, however, long distance swimming has also attracted attention
and admiration. To swim the English Channel or Juan de Fuca Strait between Vancouver
Island and the mainland have become challenges for both male and female swimmers.
In September 1954, some Canadian businessman from Toronto offered veteran
Californian champion Florence Chadwick $10,000 if she could swim Lake Ontario. They
felt sure that such a feat would attract large crowds. Chadwick had swum the English
Channel in both directions. However, no one - neither man nor woman - had crossed
Lake Ontario. It was a 32-mile swim through cold water and difficult currents. Two other
women also decided to take up the challenge. One, Winnie Roach Leuszler, had also
swum the English Channel. The other was a 16 year old girl named Marilyn Bell.
The swimmers traveled to the mouth of the Niagara River on the south side of Lake
Ontario. They would swim from Youngstown, in the U.S.A., and back to Toronto. Bad
weather delayed the swim for several days. During the night of September 8th the
weather cleared, and the swimmers entered the water before midnight. Guided by her
coach's flashlight, Marilyn swam through the dark water and soon passed Chadwick,
who was lifted from the water after swimming 12 miles. Leuszler made it further, but she
too eventually had to give up.
Marilyn not only had to overcome her fears of the dark, but she was attacked during the
night by blood-sucking lamprey eels. She was able to knock these off with her fist. As
dawn approached, the winds and waves increased, and Marilyn's weariness mounted.
Her coach, Gus Ryder, passed her some corn syrup on a stick, and later gave her
liniment for her tired legs. He wrote messages on a blackboard to encourage her to keep
going. Sometimes, he tricked her into thinking that she was nearer to the shore than she
Marilyn fell asleep in the water twice and had to be awakened. The second time, a friend
of hers jumped into the water beside her, and swam with her for a distance.
Because Marilyn's strength was declining, she was being pushed off course by the
currents. Although the direct route was 32 miles, Marilyn swam a total of 45 miles. The
last few miles were extremely difficult. Marilyn's family and the lifeguards felt that she
should be taken out of the water. But her coach threatened to quit as her coach if the
swimmer gave up.
It was getting dark again, and the swimmer was barely conscious as she approached the
shore. Thousands of people lined the shore hoping to touch her or get a picture of her.
Marilyn's supporters had to push the crowds back so they wouldn't stop her from
touching the shore. Finally, after 21 hours in the water, Marilyn reached land. The
exhausted girl was rushed to an ambulance. She had lost about 20 pounds of her 120 pounds weight in the crossing. Finally she was able to sleep.
Huge crowds came out to see her the next day, and two days later there was a parade in
her honour through the streets of Toronto. Everyone admired the courage and endurance
of the 16 year-old girl, who became the first person to swim across Lake Ontario.
Article 45 Currier and Ives
Before the widespread use of photography, there was a large market for artistic
depictions of scenes and events. A process for making prints called lithography became
popular in North America during the early nineteenth century. One young artist who
mastered this technique was Nathaniel Currier (1813-1888). Currier opened his own shop
in 1834. Currier's success came when he issued prints of newsworthy events. His "Ruins
of the Merchant's Exchange" followed a great fire in New York, December 1834. One of
Currier's prints of a disastrous fire on a steamboat was published in the New York Sun in
There was also a large market for decorative prints. People who couldn't afford oil
paintings would buy colour prints to put on their walls. Some of these prints were copies
of paintings. Sometimes, Currier mentioned his source and sometimes not.
In 1852, James Merritt Ives (1824-1895) joined Currier's firm. In 1857, he became Currier's
partner. After that, the firm was known as Currier and Ives.
Altogether the firm produced about 7,000 different subjects. Small prints sold for about
25 cents, and large colour prints for about three dollars. Travelling salesmen went from
house to house selling them. Currier and Ives sometimes hired the original painters to
make the print. More often, someone from his or her own studio either composed an
original subject or copied an existing painting or drawing.
Contemporary news remained popular. Currier and Ives prints included "The First
Appearance of Jenny Lind in America" (1850), "The Fall of Richmond, Virginia" (1865),
and "The Great Fire at Chicago" (1871). A common subject was a patriotic scene from
American history. Interesting occupations such as whaling, bird hunting, trapping, fur
trading and deep-sea fishing were portrayed. Pioneer and Indian topics were in demand.
However, the most popular of all scenes were winter and holiday prints of ordinary
people enjoying life. Farm scenes, buggy rides, sleigh rides, market scenes, blacksmith's
shops, and town scenes sold well. Favourite prints included "American Forest Scene:
Maple Sugaring" (1860), "Home to Thanksgiving" (1863), "Winter in the Country" (1862),
"Life in the Country: The Morning Ride" (1859) and "American Winter Sports" (1856).
These scenes are still popular. Even today you can buy Christmas cards with Currier and
Ives winter scenes.
This collection of prints gives a remarkable picture of America between 1834 and 1907.
Although the prints are sometimes more romantic than reality, they give a lot of
information about everyday life. They depict styles of clothing, trains and boats,
buildings and bridges and popular activities. They also tell us what sorts of scenes
people at that time liked, and what their artistic tastes were.
Eventually, advances in photography made this kind of printmaking obsolete. In 1906, the
firm of Currier and Ives closed its doors. For a while, these prints were not considered
very valuable. Nowadays, however, there are many collectors, and Currier and Ives prints
once again can be found decorating North American homes.
Article 46 Death Valley - California
The steep mountains of southeastern California dip suddenly into a deep valley. Rain is
kept out of the valley by the high mountains, which form its western slopes. Although
mountains surround the valley, Death Valley itself is very low. In fact, its lowest point is
282 feet below sea level, the lowest point of land in North or South America.
Death Valley is about 140 miles long, but only a few miles wide. It got its name in 1849
during the California Gold Rush. Gold seekers attempted to cross Death Valley on the
way to California's gold fields, and some died of thirst there. There is hardly any water in
the Valley. The average rainfall is only a couple of inches a year. It is also one of the
hottest places in North America in the summer. Temperatures of 134튔 have been
As a result of this heat and dryness, Death Valley is a desert. These conditions give rise
to the Valley's most important products - mineral salts and salt deposits. One of these
products is borax, which has many industrial uses. Borax was removed from the desert
using 20 mule teams hitched in a long string. Later, a railway was built to help carry out
In spite of its desert conditions, Death Valley has considerable animal and plant life. Of
course, its animals and plants are those typical in desert conditions. Only on the salt
flats do plants refuse to grow. With even a small rainfall in the spring, the desert will
come alive with wild flowers.
Very few places in the world have such a contrast in heights and depths. The mountains
near the Valley are among the highest in Continental U.S.A., while the Valley itself is the
lowest elevation. Mount Whitney at 14,495 feet is less than 100 miles from Death Valley.
The climate in the Valley from October to May is generally pleasant. Since Death Valley is
now a national park, many tourists visit during this season. Now roads and hotels
provide comfortable access.
Death Valley is located close to the Nevada border. Its desert conditions are common
throughout the area of the American west just east of coastal mountains. In most cases,
heavy rain falls along the coast, but very little in the interior. Because there is no farming
and water is hard to obtain, Death Valley and similar desert areas have very few
Article 47 Dr. Norman Bethune
Some people find their vocation early in life; others do not discover their life's work until
they are older. Norman Bethune tried many things before he fully realized his true work.
Bethune was born in Gravenhurst, Ontario in 1890. He was the son of a Presbyterian
clergyman. The family moved frequently, and many of the places they lived were close to
lakes, rivers and woods.
As a young man, Norman loved the outdoors. He became a good swimmer and skater. He
also showed that he had a strong independent streak. He hated rules, but also had a
strong sense of justice.
The young man studied science at the University of Toronto from 1909-1911. After that,
he worked for Frontier College. This was a volunteer organization where instructors did
the same jobs as the local workers during the day, and taught them English in the
evening. He then returned to Toronto to study medicine.
Early in World War I, he joined the Army Medical Corps. He reached France in February
1915, but was wounded in April and eventually returned to Canada. He went back to the
war in 1917. At the end of the war, he continued to study medicine in London, England.
While he was in England, he married a Scottish woman, Frances Campbell Penney.
Although Bethune loved her very much, their marriage ended in divorce in 1927. The
couple moved to Detroit, Michigan in 1924 where Bethune opened a medical practice. In
the middle of his growing success, he contracted tuberculosis. This was a low point in
Bethune's life. Thinking that he was going to die, he considered suicide. One day,
however, he read of a new treatment for tuberculosis and insisted that his doctors
perform the operation on him. As a result, Bethune recovered. The year was 1927.
For some years after, Bethune devoted himself to the treatment of tuberculosis patients.
However, he began to notice a pattern. Rich patients who could afford proper medical
care usually recovered. Poor patients usually died. Bethune became a supporter of
government-funded medicinal care.
Bethune admired the government-funded health system in communist Russia. He was
angry when Canada would not support his idea about Medicare. Bethune wanted to
change the world, and communism seemed like the most promising method.
In 1936, Bethune went to Spain to help the Republicans fight the Fascists. He was
appalled to see the Fascists' allies, Germany and Italy, dropping bombs on women and
children. He developed a hated for Fascism. He also decided that doctors should go to
the front, rather than wait for the wounded to be brought to them. In Spain, he developed
a blood transfusion service, which saved many lives.
Returning to North America, Bethune heard about the Japanese attack on China in 1937.
Early in 1938, he sailed for China. Bethune had joined the Communist Party. Now he went
to join the army of Mao Tse-sung in Northern China. Mao's army was suffering badly from
Japanese attacks. They had hardly any doctors or medical supplies.
Difficulties only made Bethune work harder. He soon organized a hospital, trained
medical workers, and wrote textbooks. He insisted on operating right at the front to give
the wounded a better chance of survival. He went for days without sleep and gave his
own blood to help the wounded. In November 1939, he died from blood poisoning. But
his work lived on.
In 1973, the Canadian government bought his house that he was born in and turned it
into a museum.
Article 48 Ebenezer Scrooge
In the story "A Christmas Carol," Scrooge is an English businessman who thinks about
nothing but money. He has no friends, and spends no time with his family. He lives alone,
eats alone, and works alone, except for his underpaid clerk, Bob Cratchit. Scrooge never
spends his money, but hoards it all, and prides himself on his frugality.
Scrooge hates Christmas. It is all nonsense to him. People spend money on food, and
gifts, and parties. Often they can't afford what they spend. Worse than that, they take a
whole day off work and so lose a chance to make more money. Scrooge is angry that he
has to give his clerk the day off with pay. He feels that he is being robbed.
Christmas is also a time when people are asked to give money to help the poor. Scrooge
is angry when two men come to his door asking for donations. Scrooge argues that he
pays taxes, which support prisons and workhouses. It is not his business to worry about
the problems of other people. Scrooge represents businessmen who see the "bottom
line" as all that matters.
Scrooge's partner Marley had died seven years earlier. He was like Scrooge in all
respects. That evening, which is Christmas Eve, Scrooge is visited by Marley's ghost.
Marley drags steel chains round about him, which contain keys, cash-boxes, ledgers,
purses and deeds. These are the things that Marley cared about when he was alive.
Marley is condemned in death to wander the world and tells Scrooge that the same fate is
likely to happen to him. However, three spirits will visit Scrooge, and if Scrooge listens to
them, he may escape his fate.
The first spirit comes and takes Scrooge back to the early scenes of his own life. He sees
himself being left behind at school while the other boys went home for the holidays.
Then his little sister arrives to tell him he could go home too. Another scene was of a
cheerful Christmas party, when Scrooge was a young man. A third scene showed him
with the girl he was planning to marry. She left him because he no longer cared about
anything but money.
The second spirit shows Scrooge what people are doing that very Christmas. He shows
Scrooge the preparations that people, even poor people, are making to celebrate
Christmas. They visit Bob Cratchit's tiny home. There they see the family cooking their
little Christmas dinner. Bob's son, Tiny Tim, has been weakened by disease, and has to
use a crutch to walk. The family is delighted with its meal, small as it is. They see other
scenes of poor people--miners and sailors --celebrating Christmas. Finally, they visit
Scrooge's nephew, and view his Christmas party and its games.
The third spirit was the spirit of Christmas Yet to Come - the Future. This spirit does not
talk but points to scenes connected with Scrooge. They overhear some businessmen
joking about someone who has recently died, but no one is going to the funeral. Scrooge
sees that he no longer occupies his usual place of business. The spirit then shows him
two women who have stolen the bedclothes, curtains, and clothes of the dead man and
taken them to a pawnbroker. The spirit takes Scrooge to the room where the dead man
died. The only people who are happy about the death are a young couple who owed him
money. The spirit then shows Scrooge the Cratchit's house, where they are mourning the
death of Tiny Tim. Finally, the spirit takes him to a churchyard, where they stand among
the graves. Then the spirit points to the name of the dead man on the tombstone--
"Ebenezer Scrooge." Scrooge is going to die, and no one will care.
Scrooge finds himself in his own bed on Christmas morning. He is resolved now to avoid
the fate that the spirits had shown him. He is delighted that he is getting a second
chance. Scrooge decides to surprise all his acquaintances, and he begins by buying a
huge goose and sending it to the Cratchits. On his walk, he meets the two men collecting
for the poor, and offers them a large sum of money. He goes on to join his nephew at his
Christmas party. The next day when Bob Cratchit comes into work, Scrooge gives him a
raise in his salary. He also takes care of Tiny Tim, so that Tim's health is recovered.
Charles Dickens' story was written at a time when governments did very little to help the
poor. Wages were very low, and many businessmen were unwilling to look after their
workers properly. Dickens points out that people like Scrooge not only make other
people unhappy, but also are usually unhappy themselves. It is possible to be a very rich
businessman, and a poor human being at the same time.
Article 49 Etiquette
"Etiquette" is a French word. The original meaning was "little tickets." These tickets were
given to people who were attending a public ceremony. Printed on the ticket were
instructions about how to behave on this occasion. So etiquette came to mean the way to
behave on public occasions.
Etiquette today includes how to introduce people; how to eat properly; how to dress for
different occasions; how to speak to different people; and what to do on special
occasions. Almost every part of social life can have its particular etiquette.
Sometimes, etiquette changes or seems to change. There was much behaviour attached
to courtship, such as a man holding the door open for a woman. Nowadays, some people
find this outdated. But politeness is always a good idea. It is nice to hold the door open
for the next person, whoever they are.
In fact, it sometimes seems like contemporary life encourages bad manners. Etiquette is
no longer taught to young people. Moreover, in a youth culture, young people take their
examples from other young people. As a result, good manners aren't considered
The point of etiquette is to help people to get along with each other. If people behave in
an accepted manner, there is less chance of misunderstanding. Moreover, it is important
for people to think about treating other people well. If everyone does what they feel like
doing, it doesn't seem like they respect other people. Etiquette can help things to go a lot
Manners vary from culture to culture, but the intention is the same: to treat people with
consideration. This is a way to reduce conflict.
Sometimes, we can understand where these customs come from. Originally, shaking
hands with your right hand probably meant that you weren't carrying a weapon. Taking
off your hat may originally have been taking off your helmet. This meant that you weren't
going to fight.
Nowadays, there are new areas of social life. For example, a lot of conversation now
takes place on the telephone. Perhaps because there is no traditional telephone etiquette,
some people feel free to be rude. Try to treat the person on the phone just the way you
would treat them if you were actually talking to them. Most people feel it is rude to
interrupt a conversation. But many people seem to think that it is okay to interrupt
someone talking on the phone. Children especially need to be taught not to interrupt.
The Internet also needs its own etiquette or "netiquette." Because you cannot see whom
you are talking to, and they may be thousands of miles away, it is easy to misunderstand.
Also people cannot hear the tone of your voice over the Internet. For this reason, some
people use "smilies" - little faces - to show how they are feeling. If they make a joke they
can use a smiling face, or print after their remark. This tips off the recipient that their
remark is not to be taken seriously.
Using simple words like "please" and "thank you" can make everyday life a lot smoother
and happier. Like a lot of other things, we do not realize the importance of etiquette until
it starts to disappear.
Article 50 Gambling
Many governments have turned to legalized gambling as a way to increase revenues.
Raising taxes has become very unpopular, and gambling can be seen as a "cash cow."
Large casinos are often considered good for areas with high unemployment. Most new
casinos include a variety of slot machines, table games, such as blackjack, and roulette
Opponents of gambling point to problems associated with it. Crime rates go up,
especially with respect to theft and prostitution. People become addicted to gambling
and play until they are broke. Stress is put on families when one member gambles, and
the grocery and rent money are spent.
On the other hand, many people view gambling as an exciting form of entertainment.
They look forward to the opportunity to play the lottery or go to the casino. Often they
feel that they are getting good value, in terms of entertainment, for what they spend.
The truth is probably that some people can control the urge to gamble, while some
cannot. People who find gambling really exciting feel that they have to go back for that
"high," even if it means spending all their money. Many people doubt that governments
should promote gambling, since it is certain to produce addicts.
There has also been some question whether gambling is good for the local economy. If a
casino is built in an area of high unemployment, will local people really benefit? The
answer seems to be both yes and no. People may benefit if the gamblers come in large
numbers from outside the area and spend their money there. That is, if the casino is a
notable tourist attraction. On the other hand, if not many people come from outside the
area, there are few benefits. In this case, most of the gamblers are local people who are
spending the little money they have.
Gambling is especially attractive to older and retired people. Since older people don't
have much chance of making a lot of new money, the thought of winning the jackpot is
very attractive to them. Casinos regularly run buses from retirement homes so that
seniors can come and gamble. Some would see this as taking advantage of lonely people.
There are stories in the newspaper about couples leaving their children locked in the car
for six or eight hours while they gamble. One man hoped to improve his finances by
gambling, but he lost heavily. His wife found out and went gambling herself, hoping to
win some of the money back. Before long, they had to sell their house to pay their
Gambling has usually been associated with organized crime. Even today, when
government agencies supervise gambling, it would appear that there is still a crime
connection. This may be because many of the best gamblers and gambling
administrators learned their trade outside of the law. Besides this, gambling
establishments attract various forms of crime to the area.
Since law and government have an important educational function, one doesn't like to
see them involved in gambling. Governments should be more than profit-maximizers.
They should be concerned chiefly with the public good.
Article 51 Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan are the authors of many lively and humorous operettas. These works
are the most popular of their kind, and are regularly performed today. But the two
authors are known almost as well for their arguments and disagreements. The famous
partners were very different people with very different interests.
William S. Gilbert wrote the words that Sullivan set to music. Gilbert had a special talent
for humourous verse. He loved puns, and had a very quick wit. Personally though, he
was very businesslike. He had wanted to enter the military and always had the look of a
soldier about him. He was fond of giving orders and disliked criticism of anything he did.
Arthur S. Sullivan, on the other hand, was a sensitive, emotional person, whose main
interest was music. Sullivan came from a poor family, but his musical talents and good
looks had helped him to succeed. Sullivan wanted to write serious classical music. But,
as a poor man, he needed a source of income. Sullivan also needed someone to direct
him. On his own, he had trouble deciding what to do.
Gilbert and Sullivan never became really good friends and, at the end of their lives, they
had little contact with each other. But the writer and musician needed each other. Gilbert
needed a composer who could enliven his writings for the stage. Sullivan needed
someone to write a text for his music. Sullivan, who tended to be lazy, needed someone
to push him.
A theatrical manager named Richard D'Oyly Carte arranged their first collaboration.
Gilbert visited Sullivan and read him his satire on the legal system, "Trial by Jury."
Sullivan loved the piece and quickly wrote the music. "Trial by Jury" was produced in
1875 and became the first triumph for the partners.
D'Oyly Carte decided to form an acting company, which would stage future works by
Gilbert and Sullivan. A string of successes follows: "The Sorcerer" in 1877; "H.M.S.
Pinafore" in May 1878; "The Pirates of Penzance" in December 1878; "Patience" in 1881;
"Iolanthe" in 1882; "The Mikado" in 1885; "The Yeomen of the Guard" in 1888; and "The
Gondoliers" in 1889.
In spite of these successes, the two partners were not happy. Sullivan did not like the
way Gilbert dominated their relationship. Sullivan had to write music for Gilbert's scripts.
Why couldn't Gilbert write words for Sullivan's music? Gilbert, on the other hand,
thought that Sullivan got most of the credit for the success of their operettas and that he
Gilbert was the driving force in the relationship. He was always writing new scripts and
taking them to Sullivan. It was Gilbert who rehearsed the actors and supervised the
productions. Sullivan had little to do with the actual performance. He usually did conduct
the orchestra on opening night.
The amazing thing is how these two different people produced such wonderful work.
Each separately had difficulty writing something that the public wanted. Together they
were unbeatable. Gilbert's sharp and often cutting remarks were made acceptable by
Sullivan's beautiful music. Gilbert's satire might have made people angry, but Sullivan's
music calmed them down. Even when the English people were the targets of Gilbert's
criticisms, the audience went out of the theatre humming these criticisms to Sullivan's
Article 52 Hawaii
In the middle of the Pacific Ocean, far from any land, there are the Hawaiian Islands.
These islands are the tops of a chain of volcanic mountains. Two volcanoes on the Island
of Hawaii are still active.
There are five larger islands. Kauai is to the west; Oahu, Molokai and Maui are in the
middle; and Hawaii is to the east. There are three smaller islands. Hawaii is the largest
island of the group, but Oahu has the largest population. The capital city, Honolulu, is on
Since the Hawaiian Islands are so far from any land, one might wonder how people
arrived there. The answer is that the first Hawaiians were very good sailors. They
travelled thousands of miles from other islands in the Pacific in canoes. To keep these
canoes stable in the ocean, they attached an "outrigger," or pontoon, to the main canoe.
Sometimes, they fastened two canoes together and put a wooden platform on top. Then
they could carry lots of people and supplies.
The first Hawaiians were Polynesians, and probably came from the Marguesas and Tahiti
in the South Pacific. They were a tall good-looking people. Their kings made rules about
how their people should live, and priests and advisors called "kahunas" enforced these.
Today the phrase "the big kahuna" means someone who is, or thinks he is, very
Although Hawaii lies within the tropics, it has a very mild climate. Sea breezes keep the
weather from getting too hot, even in the summer. Many edible plants grow in abundance
there. So it was not difficult for the Hawaiians to live very comfortably without working
Captain Cook was the first European to reach Hawaii in 1778. Soon European and
American ships visited there regularly. The sailors also brought diseases formerly
unknown. By 1853, the population had dropped to 73,000 from about 300,000 when Cook
visited in 1778. Besides Europeans, people from China, Japan and the Philippines came
to live there. Soon large plantations of sugar cane and pineapples developed. As more
and more land came under western control, the native monarchy was undermined.
American plantation owners were able to arrange for United States' control of the islands.
Today, the largest industry is tourism. Since the climate is good all year round, visitors
can come at any time. When you arrive, a young Hawaiian woman will greet you. She will
put a beautiful flower necklace called a "lei" around your neck. Hula dancers entertain
tourists. Hula dancers wear skirts made of long leaves. Each dancer tells a story by
moving their arms and hands in a certain way. For meals, the Hawaiians like to dig a pit in
the ground, place wood in the pit, and then set the wood on fire. Food wrapped in leaves
is then placed on the wood, and the pit is covered with leaves and mats. A feast cooked
this way is called a "luau." These traditions nowadays are usually performed for tourists,
or on special holidays. Hawaii is the 50th state of the United States, and its people enjoy
all the advantages of the modern world.
Article 53 Henry Ford
Some inventions are based on simple ideas or principles. Barometers are based on the
idea that air has weight and pushes down on objects. A barometer measures this air
pressure. Evangelista Terricelli invented barometers in Italy in 1643.
Other inventions have taken longer to develop. The automobile has thousands of parts
and it took a long time to make a really useful car. Henry Ford was one of the first people
to make a reliable automobile.
In 1765, James Watt invented the steam engine. Within a few years, a Frenchman, Nicolas
Cugnot, had built a steam-powered vehicle. These steam carriages were used in England
in the 1800s. But they were big and slow. They looked like a train without the tracks. Most
people preferred to travel by train.
In Germany during the 1870s and 1880s, Nikolaus Otto and Gottlieb Daimler developed
the internal combustion engine. This ran by burning gasoline. Another German, Karl
Benz, built a gasoline-powered car.
Around the world, there were many inventors trying to build a car that would be better
than the one before. Some people thought that electric cars would become common. In
the 1890s, several inventors working in the United States developed a gasoline-powered
car that was practical for daily use.
Henry Ford was born on a farm in Michigan in 1863. As a boy, he loved to take clocks and
watches apart and reassemble them. Eventually, he went to work for the Detroit Edison
Company. In his spare time, he worked on a "horseless carriage," as the early cars were
called. In 1896, he completed a car that ran smoothly. He later sold it and made another
one. Since early cars were made by hand, they were usually quite expensive. Not only
that, but when they broke down, there were no repair shops to take them to. One had to
know how to repair a car oneself.
Henry Ford tried to make cars which would be affordable, and which would not break
down very easily. His Ford Motor Company was formed in 1903 in Detroit, Michigan.
Since many parts had to be brought together to make a car, Ford developed the assembly
line. On the line, each worker would do one specific job. When the car reached the end of
the assembly line, it was finished. In this way, many cars could be made in a single day.
The result was that Ford was able to bring the price of cars down.
Ford's "Model T" car was advertised as being "as frisky as a jack rabbit and more
durable than a mule." Since it cost hundreds, rather than thousands, of dollars, many
ordinary families were now able to buy a car. Once many people had cars, their habits
began to change. People didn't have to live next to the factories or offices that they
worked in. Going for Sunday drives or travelling to tourist sites became a common thing.
In 1905, a car drove across the United States and back again. In 1912, a car went across
Canada from coast to coast. Soon there was public pressure for good roads so that cars
could travel anywhere in North America.
Henry Ford was not the only inventor of the modern car. However, he was able to make a
car that everyone could use and afford.
Article 54 It Could Be a Whole Lot Better
As I was sitting in the reading room at the library, a man got up and left, commenting, "It
could be a whole lot better." I wasn't sure whether he was referring to the reading room,
the world he was reading about, or something else. I replied without thinking, "That's
always true, and always false." What I meant was that it is always possible to make little
changes to improve things. But it isn't clear ahead of time that these changes will make a
big overall improvement in a library, in the world, or in anything else.
Years ago, literary critics used to examine great writers very closely to find bad phrasing
or ungrammatical sentences. They would look at a play by Shakespeare and identify
lines that they didn't think were very good. Sometimes, they would suggest that these
lines were added by another writer, or that Shakespeare had written this part quickly
without much consideration. Sometimes, they would omit or improve on the lines. It is
doubtful that any of Shakespeare's plays were actually improved by these critics. An
entire play needs high points and low points, poetry and prose. The whole thing is
greater than all its individual parts. And changing a couple of these parts may not
improve the whole thing.
It is the same in many other areas - music, athletics, scholarship, and probably everyday
living. It is not always the singer or musician who is flawless that we admire most.
Sometimes, it is the person whose performance is not perfect, but who puts a special
energy, feeling, or enthusiasm into their work that we admire.
It is true that little things can sometimes add up to a big difference. Changing a bad habit
can make a difference in your life, and in the lives of people around you. Giving up
smoking, for example, or ceasing to criticize a family member can make an important
difference. Sometimes, however, we are only looking at the symptoms of a larger
For example, nearly everyone would agree that giving up smoking is a good idea. But if
our smoking is related to emotional problems or stress in our lives, then giving up
smoking may make us feel even worse. It may be necessary to deal with the root problem.
It can happen too that being always on the look-out for ways to improve things may
become a problem in itself. "Perfectionism" means never being satisfied with things as
they are. Especially if we are always criticizing people around us for not being good
enough, this can become a bad thing.
A popular saying in North America is, "If it ain't broke, don't fix it." This is a warning to
people who feel that their role or position involves making continuous changes in
policies, procedures, products or personnel. Sometimes, the drive for change can be
more of a personality problem than a genuine concern to make things better.
Real problems are often clearly apparent. Problems like world hunger, personality
conflicts, policies that don't work, poor levels of service, bad manners, and all kinds of
troubles are hard to ignore. They are also difficult to resolve. Perhaps that's one reason
why some people identify things as problems which are of concern to hardly anyone
Yes, we can make the world, and the reading room, better. But, we can also make them
worse. It takes a lot of discernment and usually some experience to know how to make a
particular thing better. There are so many things that could use improvement that it is
difficult to know where to start. This too requires some thought, not to mention prayer
and study. We can start by asking whether the thing we see as a problem is also a
problem for other people. If it isn't, then maybe our energy and attention might be better
Article 55 John Chapman : American Pioneer
When the first Europeans came to North America, they found dense forests coming down
right to the shore. So thick were the forests that it is said that a squirrel could travel from
the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River without once touching the ground. Clearing
these trees to make room for fields and buildings was a very difficult task for the early
Another difficulty was finding enough food in this new land. Many European crops would
not grow in this climate. Carrying and storing seeds over a long period was also risky.
Native Indians were often helpful in teaching the settlers how to find food. But sometimes
there were no Indians nearby, or they were hostile.
John Chapman is famous today because he helped the early settlers grow one important
product - apples. Apples could be eaten fresh in the fall, or stored through the winter.
They could be made into fresh apple juice or alcoholic cider. They could be dried, or
made into applesauce. Apples also could be made into vinegar, which was very useful for
keeping vegetables from spoiling.
John Chapman was born in Massachusetts in 1774, the year before the American
Revolution began. John's father joined George Washington's army to fight for American
independence from Great Britain. While the war was going on, John's mother died. In
1780, John's father married again, and soon John had lots of young brothers and sisters.
John probably worked on his father's farm as he was growing up. Then he worked on
neighbouring farms. It may be at this time that John began to learn about apples.
After the Revolutionary War, the population of the U.S.A. was expanding. Many
Americans wanted to go west over the mountains to find land in Indian Territory. In the
fall of 1797, young John Chapman headed west into Pennsylvania. On his way, he
gathered leftover apple seeds from the cider mills that he passed. As usual, John walked
barefoot, but as he travelled snow began to fall. He tore strips off his coat and tied them
around his feet. Then he made snowshoes out of tree branches. When he arrived in the
west, he began to clear land and plant apple seeds. This began a pattern that would last
Chapman's whole life. He would travel ahead of the settlers, clear land, and then sell his
baby apple trees to the settlers when they arrived. When the area became too settled,
Chapman would move further west, and start again.
Many settlers regarded John Chapman as a strange character. He never bought new
clothes, but wore whatever old clothes came his way. But he was always welcome at a
settler's cabin. John was good at clearing land, telling stories, and growing apples. He
liked children, and children liked him. He was a religious man and would read to the
settlers about God and living together peacefully.
At this time, there was conflict between the settlers and the Indians about land. John
managed to be friendly with both groups. But John did warn the settlers if the Indians
were planning to attack them.
Every fall, John went east to gather more apple seeds. Then he would go further west
and find some empty land to plant his seeds. During the warm weather, he tended all his
fields of baby apple trees. Once they were properly grown, he sold the seedlings to
settlers. When he had earned enough money, he bought land to grow more apple trees.
In his own lifetime, he became known as Johnny Appleseed. Legends grew up about him.
It was said that his bare feet could melt snow, and that he could leap across rivers.
Johnny Appleseed never built himself a real home. He was a wanderer all his life,
travelling west to Indiana and Iowa and back east again. He enjoyed sleeping outdoors,
lying on his back, looking up at the stars and thinking about God and his world.
He died in Indiana in 1845, and no one knows exactly where he is buried. But all through
that region are hundreds of apple trees. These apple trees are the most fitting memorial
to John Chapman - the legendary Johnny Appleseed.
Article 56 Las Vegas, Nevada
Nevada is a large state of deserts and mountains. Since most of the land is not suitable
for farming, the population grew very slowly. In the 1950s, there were only 267,000 people
in the entire state. Today, there are nearly a million people living in the Las Vegas area
Las Vegas has become a major tourist center. It used to be a quiet little desert town of
the old west. But in the 1950s and 1960s, hotels and gambling casinos were opened. In
order to bring tourists to town, these hotels hired well-known entertainers. Soon Las
Vegas became known as a major entertainment center.
In order to promote the growth of Nevada, some activities were allowed which were
against the law in other states. These included gambling and prostitution. It was also
easier to get married in Nevada than in some other states. Over time, many other
attractions were developed.
Much of the activity in Las Vegas goes on at some 30 major hotels. Many of these hotels
provide a complete range of services and entertainment. Some of them boast 4,000 or
5,000 rooms. It is common for these large hotels to be organized around a particular
theme, such as the Middle Ages, the Arabian Nights, the movies, the circus, Paris, Egypt
or the Far East. The hotel, its restaurants, shops, lounges and entertainment reflect this
theme. For example, the Paris Las Vegas Hotel has a 50-storey replica of the Eiffel Tower.
The Luxor Hotel has a huge image of an Egyptian Sphinx and a replica of the tomb of
Nearly all of the major hotels also contain a casino - sometimes several casinos.
Gambling is a major reason why people come to Las Vegas. There are slot machines,
blackjack tables, and roulette wheels and much more.
Even though Las Vegas is in the desert, there is an extravagant use of water. Large
swimming pools, water slides, artificial waterfalls and huge fountains are common.
Health spas, beauty salons, fashion boutiques, specialty restaurants and malls abound.
Tennis and golf are also popular.
The lavish shows at Las Vegas are world famous. The tall dancing showgirls, like the
famous Rockettes, wear beautiful but rather skimpy costumes. Some entertainers, like
singer Wayne Newton, rarely leave Las Vegas. The pay there is good, and the audiences
Near Las Vegas are other tourist sites such as the giant Hoover Dam. Behind the Hoover
Dam is the large artificial lake, Lake Mead. Further up the river is the Grand Canyon. All
these things are a short trip from the city.
Las Vegas is called the city that never sleeps. At nearly any time of the day or night, there
are casinos and shows that are open. A monorail connects many of the leading hotels.
Many people view Las Vegas as a total entertainment package. One word of caution - set
yourself a limit to how much you will spend at the casinos. Gambling can be addictive.
Article 57 Laura Secord
Women have often played an important role in war. They have worked in munitions
factories, made clothing and supplies, encouraged and entertained soldiers, nursed the
wounded, and acted as spies. It is rare, however, for a woman to have played a key role
in determining the course of a war. Many people believe that Laura Secord played such a
role in the War of 1812.
Laura Secord was born in the United States at the time of the American Revolution. Her
father had fought in the U.S. army against the British. But when land in the American
States became scarce, the family moved to Ontario, Canada, and so back under British
rule. Laura married into a pro-British family, and adopted their political views. So when
the War of 1812 broke out between Britain and America, her husband, James Secord,
joined the Canadian militia to defend Ontario against the Americans.
The American invasion of 1812 was defeated at Queenston Heights, and some of the
wounded were brought to Laura's house in nearby Queenston. Laura went out to the
battlefield where she found her husband, James, who was severely wounded, and
brought him home.
In 1813, the U.S. invasion was more successful. Parts of Ontario close to the U.S. border
were occupied by American troops. Local families were expected to provide room and
board for U.S. officers. It was sometimes possible, therefore, for Canadians to overhear
American officers discussing military strategy, either in their homes, or in the local
The situation in Ontario looked desperate in the Spring of 1813. The whole province
seemed likely to fall into American hands. In June, Laura overheard talk of an American
attack on the British outpost at Beaver Dams. Her husband was still suffering from war
injuries, and she had to look after him and their children. Nevertheless, she resolved to
go to warn the British commander.
Possibly, Laura did not intend to walk the whole way herself. She hoped to be able to
pass on the news to someone else along the way. First, she would have to make up a
story to get past the American sentries. She left Queenston in early morning and walked
nineteen miles to the neighbourhood of Beaver Dams by nightfall. She still had to cross a
wide stream and climb up the Niagara Escarpment. There she came upon an
encampment of Indians who were assisting the British. Their war cries in the moonlight
terrified her, but she insisted on being taken to the British commander. Finally, one of the
chiefs escorted her to British headquarters, and she was able to tell Fitzgibbon the
American plan of attack.
When the Americans arrived in the neighbourhood of Beaver Dams, the Indians had
prepared an ambush for them. A running fight ensued between the American force of 570
soldiers and 450 Indians supporting the British. At this point, Fitzgibbon arrived with 50
British regulars. Seeing the Americans disorganized and surrounded by the Indians,
Fitzgibbon boldly demanded their surrender. By telling the American Commander
Boerstler that he was facing huge British and Indian forces, Fitzgibbon induced the
American leader to turn over his whole army to the British.
Although only small armies were involved at Beaver Dams, the battle had great
significance. Afterwards, the Americans stayed behind their walls for the rest of the year.
The U.S. government recalled their commander-in-chief. British and Canadian morale
increased, and Laura's home in Queenston was restored to British control.
Laura Secord's story was little known until 1860. She was an old woman in her eighties
when she was presented to the visiting Prince of Wales, later King Edward VII. He
awarded a gift of money for her services. Her story then became famous; today her home
in Queenston, Ontario, is an historical museum and a popular tourist attraction.
Article 58 Little House on the Prairie
Much of the history of North America is about how Europeans moved westward from the
Atlantic coast towards the Pacific. The first settlements began around 1600, and it was a
long time before the Europeans settled the interior. By the late eighteenth century,
however, good farmland along the east coast was becoming scarce. As the population
increased, people began thinking about all the native Indian lands further inland.
Families were quite large in pioneer days, and the oldest son usually inherited the family
farm. This meant that the other sons and daughters would have to move away when their
parents died. Often the sons would want to begin their own farm, and start their own
family. But, if there was no farmland available, or if it was too expensive to buy, they were
out of luck. One option was to move west where land was free or very cheap.
Sometimes the whole family might move if their old farm was no longer productive.
Sometimes the old farm was on poor soil, or too much farming had exhausted the soil.
Perhaps better land could be had further west.
There were other reasons for moving west. Pioneer settlers depended on wild birds, fish
and wild animals for food, furs and skins for clothing and trading, and trees for building
materials. These things became scarce in old settled areas. Out west there were lots of
animals to hunt for food, and animal skins could be traded for supplies. It seemed that it
was easier to make a living on the frontier.
Of course, there were some problems regarding moving west. Various American Indian
tribes who might fight to defend their land occupied the land. Then the land needed to be
cleared of trees and stumps before it could be planted. A log cabin and other buildings
had to be built. A well had to be dug, or a spring of water found. Settlers might also suffer
because there were no doctors, or teachers, or stores available. These things, though,
often did follow closely behind the first settlers.
A series of "Little House" books written by Laura Ingalls Wilder tells the story of her
pioneer family. The Ingalls family moved many times while Laura was a little girl. She was
born in Wisconsin in 1867; her family moved next year to Missouri; then they moved to
Kansas in 1869; the Ingalls moved back to Wisconsin in 1871; they moved to Minnesota
in 1874; her family went to Iowa in 1876; then back to Minnesota in 1877. Finally, they
moved to De Smet, South Dakota in 1879, and there the family remained.
All these moves were typical for a pioneer family - always on the lookout for better land
and other opportunities. But all these moves involved very hard work, all of which
seemed all lost when the family had to move again.
For example, when Laura's parents moved to the Kansas prairie in 1869, they had many
hardships. The family put all their belongings in a covered wagon, which measured four
feet by ten feet. Two horses pulled it, and the family dog followed along. Laura and her
sister Mary were very little girls.
The family and their wagon were nearly washed away trying to cross a small river. They
travelled through wild tall grass where there were no roads. Laura's father built a house
on the open prairie with logs he hauled from the creek bottoms. One of the nearby
settlers helped him. They also built a log stable for the horses. That was a good thing,
because the next night their little house was surrounded by a pack of fifty large wolves.
They formed a large circle around the house and howled all night.
One day while Laura's father was away, two Indians visited the house. They wanted
Laura's mother to feed them and stood silent while the food was cooking. The Indians
wore only fresh skunk skins as clothing. After the Indians had eaten all the food, they left.
The following spring, there was a large gathering of Indian tribes. Most of them wanted to
fight the settlers. For many nights, the sounds of Indian drums frightened the settlers.
One tribe opposed the plan, and finally the gathering broke up and the Indians went away.
Many other problems faced the Ingalls family. These included bad weather, prairie grass
fires, and malaria. The worst part was having to leave their new homes. The government
decided that Laura's family was living on Indian land and would have to move. So the
covered wagon was packed again, and the family travelled north. Such experiences were
not unusual for pioneers in the nineteenth century.
Article 59 Mutiny!!
Mutiny is a word that has brought fear to the most powerful empires in the world. Mutiny
is when soldiers and sailors refuse to obey their commanders, often killing or
imprisoning them. Mutiny can spread through whole armies and navies, throwing
governments into crisis. No wonder that nations have always taken harsh measures to
punish mutinous leaders. The ancient Romans executed every tenth man from an army
unit that had mutinied. In the British navy, mutineers were normally hanged. However,
one of history's most famous mutinies did not happen to a whole army or navy, it
happened on a single small ship, H.M.S. Bounty.
H.M.S. Bounty set sail from England in December 1787. It was a small cramped vessel,
uncomfortable during a long voyage. Its goal was to sail to the South Pacific and bring
back Tahitian breadfruit plants. The government hoped that breadfruit would provide a
cheap food for black slaves in the British West Indies.
The captain of the Bounty was William Bligh, a veteran of many voyages. His crew,
however, was largely made up of inexperienced young men. There was no room on the
ship for soldiers or marines, so Bligh, as the only commissioned officer, had the difficult
task of maintaining order.
After a long and difficult trip, the Bounty finally arrived in Tahiti in October 1788. Free
from the constraints of life aboard ship, the young men enjoyed life on the tropical island
with the friendly natives. Many of the sailors established relationships with island women.
Meanwhile, the collection of breadfruit plants for the homeward voyage continued.
In April 1789, Captain Bligh decided that it was time to return to England. The breadfruit
plants were loaded on the deck, making the ship cramped indeed. The Bounty set sail
and would no doubt have reached England again, except for the turmoil in the mind of
one of its young officers.
Fletcher Christian was 24 years old, of dark complexion, and from a good family. As the
Bounty pulled further from Tahiti, Fletcher seemed to have decided that he didn't want to
return to England. Tahiti had been an earthly paradise, and now long months of
discomfort aboard ship awaited him. He was too far from Tahiti to return by himself. He
would need the Bounty.
On April 28, 1789, some of Fletcher Christian's friends seized control of the ship. Captain
Bligh and eighteen sailors who supported him were put in a small open boat with limited
food and water. Meanwhile, Christian and his 24 followers sailed back to Tahiti.
Eventually, Fletcher Christian would sail the Bounty to the uninhabited Pitcairn Islands,
far to the south of the shipping lanes.
Meanwhile, Bligh and his loyal followers sailed in their open boat almost the width of the
Pacific Ocean. They suffered from thirst, hunger and sickness, as well as hostile natives.
Finally, they reached Timor in Indonesia in June and eventually made their way to the
When they returned to England, Captain Bligh was first greeted as a hero. Soon, however,
public attitudes changed.
The legend began that Bligh was a cruel tyrant who had caused the mutiny by harsh
treatment of his men. Although Bligh had a temper, and was not very tactful, this does
not appear to be the whole story. In fact, it is the controversy over who is to blame for the
mutiny - Bligh or Christian - that has kept the story alive for more than 200 years.
Article 60 North America's Rainforest
When people think of rainforests, they usually think of the tropical jungle. But heavy rain
can also produce dense forests in temperate areas. Along the northwest coast of North
America, there are some of the largest trees in the world. This forest runs along the
Pacific Coast from Alaska down to northern California. About half of it is in British
Several species of trees grow to an immense size. Some grow up to 95 metres (312 feet)
high, and 12 metres (40 feet) in circumference. They may be as much as 1,000 years old.
Because the trees are so tall, the forest has various levels of growth. Small plants attach
themselves to the tall trees and may form a kind of garden in the air. Further down are
the tops of the younger trees. Closer to the ground are shrubs and bushes. Along the
ground are moss, ferns, berries and other plants.
These old forests have developed over several thousand years. The tall trees are at least
several hundred years old. This old forest has several special features. Some of the dead
tall trees remain standing and become homes for insects, birds and small animals. Trees
that fall to the ground can become "nurse logs" for new plants or trees to grow on. Trees
that fall across rivers and streams can provide natural dams, which provide quiet water
for animals to live in.
In recent years, it has become common for logging companies to "clear-cut" this old
forest. To clear-cut a forest means to go into a section of forest with heavy machinery
and cut down every tree. Sometimes, these "clear-cuts" are as large as some European
countries. Logging companies are doing this because it is a cheap method of logging.
The problem is that when an old forest is cut, it does not grow back again. Even with
replanting, companies produce a tree farm, not an old forest. The complexity of an old
forest, which grew over thousands of years, is lost forever. The old forest can shelter
many kinds of birds, mammals, fish and plants that a replanted forest cannot.
Another issue is that companies are cutting more and more old forests because they
haven't done enough replanting. As long as governments have been willing to let
companies cut old forests, neither logging companies nor governments have been much
motivated to replant the forests. As a result, most of the old forest has been cut down
and continues to be cut at a rapid rate.
This situation has also worsened because new technology allows more rapid logging.
Clear-cut logging results in erosion, which, in turn, damages the quality of rivers and
streams. This causes a decline in the salmon fishery. Animals like grizzly bears, elk and
deer are harmed by the loss of habitat. Likewise, birds that nest in the old forest, such as
bald eagles, owls, woodpeckers and various seabirds are being threatened.
Recently, public interest in the old rainforests has resulted in an increase in tourism.
People come to see these spectacular trees and the many plants and animals that
depend on them. We hope that these unique temperate rainforests will remain for many
more generations to enjoy.
Article 61 Peggy's Cove, Nova Scotia
Why do people travel hundreds of miles to look at beautiful scenery? And why does one
particular place attract many more visitors than similar places not far away? Peggy's
Cove in Nova Scotia, Canada, is one of those special spots that draws people from all
over the world. It is hard to explain its special charm, but any one who has been there
will know what I am talking about.
The southern-eastern shore of Nova Scotia possesses many picturesque fishing villages
and many beautiful seascapes. But one doesn't have to go very far from the capital city
of Halifax to see this special spot. There are no trees around Peggy's Cove. The
dominant feature are huge round granite rocks, many of them the size of houses. They
seem to be pushing up and out of the land and sea. Nestled inside the circle of these
rocks is a group of fishing huts. Now and then a fishing boat leaves by the little bay or
cove, in order to travel out into the great Atlantic Ocean.
For nearly two hundred years, there have been fishermen at Peggy's Cove. All around the
little harbour there are huts or "fish stores" where the fishermen do their work. Here they
bring in the fish, and clean them, wash them and salt them. The salted fish are then
stored in barrels. Nowadays, however, more fish are sold fresh than salted.
Visiting as a tourist, I wandered into one of these huts while the fisherman was busy at
his work. He explained to me that, although Peggy's Cove is a tourist destination, it is
also a working fishing village. The fishermen get no money from the tourists, but have to
take the time to talk to them and explain their work. There are, however, some tourist
shops and tea rooms in the vicinity.
Part of the charm of Peggy's Cove is that it is so small. The population has been well
under 100 people for most of its history. The buildings are mostly small dwellings, with
the lighthouse being the most prominent structure.
A good variety of fish are caught in the area, including mackerel, herring, haddock, cod
and halibut. Lobsters are also trapped nearby. However, because of over-fishing, catches
have declined in recent decades.
The plants and animals of the area are also of interest. Showy purple lupins grow close
to the ocean. They thrive on salty ground, and the closer they grow to the spray of the
ocean the better. One of the world's few carnivorous plants - the common pitcher plant -
also grows around Peggy's Cove. Its leaves trap insects, which are digested to nourish
Common birds are the stately blue heron, which likes to fish in the marshy pools. The
heron stands several feet high and spear fish and frogs with its sharp beak. Another bird
is the osprey, or fish hawk. The osprey's keen eyes can spot a fish moving beneath the
surface of the water. It can dive swiftly, hitting the water with great speed, catch the fish
in its claws, and then fly away with its catch.
I have also seen pools close to the ocean full of large tadpoles. These tadpoles spend
several years in the water before they develop into bullfrogs. Bullfrogs, the largest
Canadian frog, have been know to eat baby ducks and small fish.
Looking over the little harbour and out toward the great ocean, one notices the contrast
between the very small and the very large. If Peggy's Cove were larger, it would be more
ordinary. As it is, it represents all the little fishing villages, where men have gone forth in
little boats to fish on the wide ocean.
Article 62 Prince Edward Island
Throughout history, people have dreamed about a special place, remote from the day-to
day business world. Sometimes, they have thought of this place as an enchanted world
where the weather is always good, and food is always easy to get. Sometimes, it has
been a hidden valley in the mountains, or an island far out at sea. When the Europeans
arrived in the South Pacific, they thought that they had found it. Islands such as Tahiti
seemed about as perfect as possible. Nowadays, our cities grow larger and larger, and
people have to work harder and harder to succeed. Many people would like to escape to
a quieter, slower, more peaceful, more attractive environment.
When summer holidays come, many people travel to Prince Edward Island in Eastern
Canada. It has a mild summer climate, and hardly ever gets too hot or dry. The fields,
trees, and crops stay green all summer. In fact, P.E.I. is famous for the many shades of
green on the island. Its soil and dirt roads are red because of iron oxide in the soil. And
visitors are never far away from the blue waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In late June
and early July, the roadsides are covered with large purple flowers called lupins. The
vivid colours of P.E.I. help make the province a photographer's paradise.
Prince Edward Island is almost 100 miles long and about 20 miles wide. It is small
enough that a tourist can see much of the Island in a couple of days. But there are
enough interesting things to see and do that most people like to stay longer.
One of the chief traditional occupations is fishing. At one time, fishing was an important
source of food and income for many islanders. Now the fisheries are in decline; boat
owners find it more profitable to take tourists out to fish than to fish themselves.
Lobsters and shellfish are still important to the Island, which is famous for its "lobster
suppers." Tourists can visit many picturesque little fishing villages all around the
Farming is also important. P.E.I. is famous for its potatoes, which are exported all over
the world. Dairy farming is also common, and local ice cream is popular with tourists.
Apple orchards, grain fields, hay fields, and vegetable gardening are also widely found.
During the era of sailing ships, a lot of shipbuilding took place on the Island. But as steel
hulls replaced wooden hulls, shipbuilding moved to regions where steel was being
produced. The full impact of the industrial revolution has never hit P.E.I. Farming, fishing
and tourism have remained the chief industries. There are no large cities on the Island.
So, if young people want to go to the big city, they have to leave P.E.I. The majority of
Island people prefer to live in small towns and villages, just as their ancestors did.
Since there wasn't much industry on the Island, many people did not have a lot of money.
As a result, they "made do" with their old houses, old furniture, and old ways of doing
things. This is why visitors to P.E.I. sometimes feel like they are going back in time.
Things on the Island seem like they are still the way things were in our parents' or
Most of the people who live on the Island are descended from British immigrants in the
eighteenth or nineteenth centuries. The majority of these were from Scotland, and the
Scottish heritage remains strong. There are also some Micmac Indians and some French
Canadians, or Acadians. The Island has generally avoided social and political strife, and
this contributes to the peaceful atmosphere.
Islanders welcome people "from away" as tourists. However, some say that to be a true
Islander, you have to be born on the Island. Nonetheless, some tourists have fallen in
love with P.E.I. and have gone there to live.
A couple of years ago, a bridge was built to connect the Island with the mainland. Many
opposed this "fixed link," saying that it would destroy the special P.E.I. atmosphere. It
remains to be seen whether the Island will change, now that tourists can drive directly on to the rich, red soil.
Article 63 Public Transit
Public transportation in North America varies greatly from place to place. Some large
cities like New York, Boston, Toronto and Montreal have subway systems. These same
cities usually also have train service into the city. But most towns and cities do not have
subways or trains. Some do not even have buses. Most big cities have some sort of
public bus service.
In most North American cities, people who use the buses complain about poor service.
This is partly because most people prefer to drive a car. Automobile companies spend
billions of dollars on advertising. They want to convince young people that they should
drive a car as soon as they are old enough. Even when public transportation is very good,
most North Americans prefer to drive cars. So mostly students, poor people and seniors
The large car companies have a lot of economic and political power in North America.
They can usually convince politicians to limit the money put into public transit. Lobbying
by large car companies has been effective in closing down many railway lines. In some
cases, large corporations have bought train tracks, and torn them up so that no one
could use them again. Because of this, nearly all transportation in North America is by
car, bus or truck.
The automobile created the modern North American city. Cars allowed families to live
outside the city and drive back in to work. Since the 1920s, large numbers of Americans
have lived in the suburbs, and used cars to do nearly all their daily activities. People
drive to school, to work, to the shopping mall, to the theatre, to church and to doctors,
lawyers and dentists. Because the modern city is so spread out, it is difficult to get where
you want to go by walking, or even by bicycling.
But the automobile also causes problems. Car accidents are a major cause of death and
injury. Crowded streets and snarled traffic can lead to road rage. Frustrated drivers
sometimes get out of their cars to fight each other. Young people often use cars as super
toys. They enjoy driving very fast and take risks while driving. A high proportion of
serious accidents concern drivers using alcohol or drugs. More recently, some people
have accused cell phones of being a cause of accidents.
About half of the air pollution in North American cities is caused by motor vehicles. The
exhaust fumes from cars and trucks are part of this. The other part is that vehicles erode
the surface of the highways. Small particles are torn loose from the road and thrown into
the air as cars whiz by. Heavy trucks are particularly large contributors to particle
Especially in hot weather, a layer of smog covers many cities. Much of this is caused by
motor vehicles. Because city roads are often crowded, the result is frequent traffic jams.
When cars are moving very slowly, bumper to bumper, it adds to air pollution.
Another problem with cars is that not everyone can afford one. The average car costs
nearly $20,000 to buy, and about $4,000 a year to operate. So cars are also a status
symbol. People with cars tend to move out of the city. As a result, downtown areas are
usually where the poorer people live.
For a long time, many people have said that governments should try to make downtown
areas more attractive to live in. This would include improving public transit, into and inside, the cities. Then some people may move back from the suburbs. And air pollution
levels will decline.
Right now, the large automobile companies and oil companies oppose these measures.
Recently, there have been cuts to public transit in many cities. Whether these cuts
continue, or whether they get reversed, is a big political issue in North America today.
Article 64 Red-haired Ann
The story of Anne Shirley, the red-haired orphan, has been popular around the world for
almost a century. The opening chapters of "Anne of Green Gables" tell how a brother and
sister, living together on a farm, have decided to adopt a boy. Matthew Cuthbert is now
60 years old and needs help working the farm. They have sent away to the orphanage,
and the boy will be arriving by train.
When Matthew goes to the train station with his horse and buggy, there is no boy, only a
girl-- Ann Shirley. Anne is no ordinary girl. She has a vivid imagination and loves to talk
about things that interest her. Matthew, who is shy and quiet, takes an immediate liking
to her. When they arrive home, however, his sister Marilla is very upset. She doesn't see
what good a girl would be to them. Matthew says, "We might be some good to her."
After a while, Marilla begins to feel sorry for the thin little orphan and decides to keep her.
But Marilla finds that teaching Anne how to behave properly is quite a challenge. Anne
often does things without thinking first, and Marilla has to be vigilant to keep her out of
trouble. As time goes by, Anne becomes accepted in the community and doesn't get into
as many difficulties.
One characteristic of the little orphan is a love of big words. While she lived a life of hard
work, Anne liked to imagine beautiful things that she didn't have. This was her way of
dealing with unhappiness when she worked as a servant for unkind people. Living at
Green Gables makes her happy, but she doesn't lose her love of special words or
Anne is also unhappy because she has red hair and freckles. In Anne's day, beautiful
women were thought to have light clear complexions and black hair. Her colouring
seemed unromantic. However, red hair and freckles are very common on Prince Edward
Island, where many of the people are of Scottish descent.
This story tells us a lot about how to be happy. When Matthew and Marilla stop worry
about needing a boy, and start taking care of Anne, they find that they enjoy having her
around. Their lives become much more interesting now that they have someone who
needs them. So happiness involves looking after others, and being needed by them.
There were many stories about orphans when "Anne of Green Gables" was written.
Before modern medicine, many parents died before their children were grown up. A lot of
mothers died in childbirth. Since fathers didn't usually try to raise young children in
those days, someone else had to take the responsibility.
This is what happened to Lucy Maud Montgomery, the author of "Anne." Her mother died
when she was a baby, and her father left her with her mother's parents. Montgomery's
grandparents provided a good home for her, but they were very strict and stern and
didn't have a lot of sympathy with the little girl.
In her story, Montgomery is imagining how she would have liked her own life to have
happened. What if her grandparents had been more like Matthew and Marilla? What if
they had allowed her to do more of the things she wanted to do? Wouldn't she have been happier then?
The story shows how young children are hurt by bad treatment from the adults looking
after them. Even if the adults don't mean to be unkind, sometimes they say or do things
that make children very unhappy. "Anne" teaches parents and grandparents to
encourage their children and help them to be happy and successful.
Anne Shirley is one little person who changes a whole community and makes it better.
We all have special gifts and talents, and if we are allowed to use those abilities, they will
benefit everyone around us.
Article 65 Romance Novels
Novels are imaginary stories about people and events. They are written to entertain and
amuse. Two thousand years ago, Greek writers told tales of young lovers. Usually the
lovers were separated by terrible events and were reunited only after much hardship and
suffering. This plot idea is still in use today.
The most popular books for women today in North America are romance novels. Many
millions are sold every year. This means that romance publishing is big business and
very competitive. Companies survey their readers to determine the kinds of stories they
like. One survey asked readers whether or not they would like more references to sex in
their novels. Usually, romances are about love, not sex. But in today's market, publishers
are ready to give their readers what they want.
The essence of the romance is to create suspense by putting obstacles in the way of the
lovers. One simple obstacle is to make the hero and the heroine as different as possible.
For example, an Eastern schoolteacher meets a Western cowboy. Of course, at first they
don't like each other at all; but in time, they fall in love. Or a female social worker might
meet an aggressive businessman.
Quite often the heroine is a spinster who has sworn never to marry. Or perhaps she has a
special dislike for the hero and his family. The romance writer must come up with a
plausible way to bring the two together. There are a number of popular plots that lead to
marriage. Sometimes, the heroine - out of a sense of duty - will move in with the hero to
help him raise his children. Or she may be a professional nanny who moves in with a
A favourite plot is the marriage of convenience. Two people who don't like each other get
married for financial or political reasons, or for the sake of the children. Later, of course,
they fall in love. In most cases, there is some particular obstacle to marriage. Often either
the hero or the heroine already has children, and he or she doesn't expect that anyone
will want to take on their ready-made family. Sometimes, one or the other has a physical
disability, or is of a different race, class, or background. For example, the heroine may
come from a very strict and proper family, while the hero may have a dubious reputation,
or even be a criminal. The interest of the story lies in how these very different people
Usually, the hero is a very masculine type - a cowboy, engineer, military man, pirate,
gambler, etc. The heroine is usually very female, but may have tomboy or spinster traits.
She frequently has a strong personality and a temper and is described as feisty or fiery.
A good example of the two types is Rhett Butler and Scarlett O'Hara in "Gone With the
Nearly every romance novel will contain some promotional offer to encourage readers to
order more books. Romances can be addictive, and some women read them almost nonstop. Some romances are very well written, but the majority follows a set formula. That
way, the reader always knows what to expect.
Article 66 Shopping at the Mall
At one time in North America, most people shopped downtown on Main Street. Most
businesses were at the center of town. When people started using automobiles, however,
they moved away from downtown. In time, most people lived in the suburbs. Eventually,
stores and small shopping plazas were built in suburban areas. Still, most of the big
stores were downtown.
But as more and more cars were on the roads, driving and parking downtown became a
problem. There wasn't room for a lot of cars to park downtown. People also didn't want to
fight downtown traffic just to go shopping. So in the 1950s and 1960s, there was the
beginning of large suburban shopping malls and plazas.
Plazas were a row of stores attached to one another. Malls were usually a double row of
stores with a roof connecting both rows. This means that shoppers did all their shopping
inside. Large department stores and grocery stores were usually part of the mall, but
there were many smaller stores as well.
When you came to the mall and went inside, many people would get a shopping cart. You
can walk along the aisles, putting your purchases in the cart. When you are finished
shopping, you can push your shopping buggy out to the car. Many malls also have
buggies or strollers for pushing small children along.
There can be a lot of walking in a trip to the mall. In fact, some people go to the mall just
to exercise. A half dozen laps around the mall every morning amount to a pretty good
workout. However, there are always places to sit down when you get tired.
Most malls have a food court. This is an open area with a lot of tables and chairs. Usually
there are a dozen or more small restaurants circled around the food court. The
department stores often have full-size restaurants.
Malls have large parking lots. Unlike downtown, you don't pay to park at the mall. On a
busy day, finding a space close to the store can be a challenge.
Many people go to the malls when the weather is bad. During wintry weather, the malls
are busy. Likewise, in really hot summer weather, people go to the malls to get cool. The
climate there is always the same.
People don't go to the malls just to shop. They also go to meet people. Usually, you
bump into friends and neighbours there. Old people, as well as teenagers, go there to
see friends. Usually the malls sponsor special events. With lots to see and do, malls are a
popular place to "hang out."
Article 67 Stephen Foster ? American Songwriter
Before radio and television, movies and recordings, entertainment was often a family or
community matter. Someone in the family could play a musical instrument, or a
neighbourhood musician would play for small gatherings. In addition, there would be
travelling groups of musicians, actors and clowns who would go from town to town.
In nineteenth century United States, one of the most popular forms of entertainment was
the minstrel show. Black slavery was still permitted in the southern states until 1865.
Even after that date, the lives of many blacks working on large farms or plantations did
not change much. They did hard physical labour in the fields, had little control over their
lives, and very little time to relax with their friends. Foster, who was born in 1826, made
this situation the background for many of his songs.
White musicians would try to imagine the feelings of black men and women working on
the plantations. They would write songs in the dialect or speech patterns that they
thought black slaves used. In these songs, the black people would be talking about their
hardships, falling in love, playing music and dancing, and finally growing old and dying.
White performers would blacken their faces and sing these songs to white audiences.
They would play musical instruments, like the banjo, a small four-stringed guitar, which
black people played often.
As a small boy, Stephen Foster had sometimes been taken to a black church by his
family's black servant, Olivia Pise. Here he first heard the melodies that inspired his own
songs. Only a couple of Foster's songs are based directly on "Negro spirituals;" but
many of his songs have the natural simplicity and emotional power of folk songs.
The youngest member of a large family, Foster showed his musical talent at an early age.
He played the flute, violin, and piano. Growing up in an energetic business family,
Stephen was expected to become a businessman. And, for a while, he worked as a
bookkeeper. All his spare time, however, was spent writing songs.
Foster attended minstrel shows and tried to get the performers to sing his songs.
Sometimes the performers would steal his songs and publish them under their own
names. Copyright laws were weak and rarely enforced, so some music publishers would
just go ahead and publish a song without paying the songwriter. Since Foster hoped to
make a living as a songwriter, this was a problem.
Foster's first hit song was "Oh! Susanna" published in 1848. It became popular with the
thousands of men from all over the United States who were heading west to the
Californian gold-rush of 1849. Unfortunately, as an unknown song writer, Foster received
no money from his early songs. He seems to have given them outright to the music
publishers, just to establish his reputation.
Foster's name, however, was soon widely known, and in 1849 he was able to afford to
give up bookkeeping, and marry the daughter of a Pittsburgh physician. During the next
five years, he earned a moderately good income from songwriting. In 1851, a daughter
Marion was born. Foster wrote many of his best-known songs at this time - "Old Folks at
Home" in 1851; "My Old Kentucky Home" in 1853, and "Jeanie With the Light Brown
Hair" in 1854.
Difficulties in Foster's marriage began fairly soon. These may have been partly due to his
strange work habits. He spent days locked in his room working on his songs. Then he
would rush out with his materials to the local music store, presumably to test out the
songs on his friends. He also became more and more addicted to alcohol. Eventually, his
wife and daughter left him. Foster died alone in a rooming house in 1864.
Immigrants to the United States brought their traditional folk songs with them. However,
there were very few typically American songs. Foster provided many songs that
expressed the life of nineteenth century U.S.A. His songs were easy to sing, and were
popular with nearly everyone. In a sense, Foster helped to create roots for American
Article 68 Sunday Morning at Church
Every Sunday is a holiday, or half-holiday, in North America. Some stores may be open,
but banks, offices, and government services are usually closed. Sunday closing has a
Christian origin. Christians believe that Jesus Christ rose from the dead on a Sunday
morning. So Sunday is known as the "Lord's Day."
About 30 or 35% of North Americans attend church regularly on Sunday mornings. About
the same percentage attend church occasionally. At Christmas and Easter the churches
are very full, as people celebrate these two important holy days. Nearly everybody goes
to church at least three times. They are baptized or dedicated as a child. Most people are
married in a church, and many people are buried after a church service.
Church services are usually held Sunday mornings, often at 11:00 am, although there
may also be evening services provided. Most services last an hour. Their purpose is to
worship God and to help people focus on religious and moral beliefs.
The service is led by a pastor, minister or priest who usually also looks after the people
and the business of the church. It is the pastor who delivers the sermon, a twenty-minute
talk on a religious or moral matter. Usually members take part in the service. They may
lead the singing, read from the Bible, offer prayers for the congregation, take up the
collection, or act as ushers. Most churches also have a choir, a group of singers who
lead in singing the hymns.
There are many cultural traditions connected to going to church. People normally wear
their best clothing, and try to be on their best behaviour. Talking or making noise in
church is usually considered bad. This is why children often have a separate "children's
church" or Sunday school, where they can be more like children.
The Sunday service is the main weekly event at many churches. But nowadays there are
a growing number of large "super-churches" which organize all kinds of activities for
their members. These churches usually have large buildings and a large staff to plan and
lead various activities. These might include prayer group, counseling and social work,
youth programs, social action, fund-raising events, etc. Many large churches have
gymnasiums for regular sports activities.
At the same time, "house churches" are also becoming very popular. These are small
groups of people who meet at private homes. Sometimes a group will meet in a house
until they have the money to buy a church. But many people say they prefer to meet in
small groups. That way, they get to know one another better. Then they feel comfortable
sharing their problems and successes, and praying for each other. Some say that large
churches can interfere with getting close to God and other Christians.
There are many different "brands" of Christianity. The largest single denomination in
North America is Roman Catholicism. Other large Christian "brands" are Episcopalian,
Methodist, Baptist, Pentecostal, Lutheran and Presbyterian. All have slightly different
traditions and beliefs.
Although in the past, these groups have often been in conflict with one another, today
they usually cooperate in working together for their members and the community.
Article 69 Thanksgiving Day
Thanksgiving Day has a special meaning for Americans. Many holidays were brought
along from Europe by the early settlers, and didn't change very much. But Thanksgiving
takes on a special shape in North America. That is because of the Thanksgiving
celebrated by the early pilgrim settlers in Massachusetts in 1621.
These early settlers were from England and they were known as Puritans. This is
because they wanted to purify the state religion of England. They felt that the churches
were more concerned with politics and customs than God and worship. They were also
called Pilgrims, because they were willing to travel to other countries in order to worship
God the way they wanted to.
When the English government put some of the Pilgrims in jail, the rest left England and
went to the Netherlands. In the Netherlands, they could have their own churches.
However, it was hard to earn a living there, and at first they didn't know the language. In
time, the English king learned where they were and tried to have them arrested. So they
thought of another plan.
Pilgrim leaders like William Brewster attempted to raise money to start a colony in North
America. They would have to borrow money and pay it back later. Thirty members of the
Pilgrim church in the Netherlands voted to sail to America with their families. They
returned to England and set sail on two ships, the Speedwell and the Mayflower. When
the Speedwell appeared unable to cross the ocean, both ships returned to England. All
who still wanted to sail crowded into the Mayflower and set sail on September 6, 1620.
Many of the passengers became sick during the long voyage, and some died. They
encountered fierce storms because they were sailing late in the season.
After sixty-six days, they sighted the sandy shoreline of Cape Cod, in present-day
Massachusetts. There was disagreement between the Pilgrims and others on board ship
about what to do. So first they had to agree to a common form of government and elect a
governor. Since winter was coming, they decided to stay on the ship till spring.
About half of the remaining settlers died during that first winter. When the Mayflower
sailed back to England, only about fifty settlers were left. Nearly half of these were
There were Indians in Massachusetts, but at first they were not friendly. They shot arrows
at the settlers. But one day a friendly Indian named Samoset came to visit them. He
spoke English and could tell them many things. He brought another Indian named
Squanto, who showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn. Eventually, their chief Massosoit
came, and he promised to keep peaceful relations with the settlers.
All spring and summer of 1621, the Pilgrims worked hard in the fields. They also finished
building houses and barns. In the fall, they were delighted to see that the corn and
vegetables had grown well. They decided to have a thanksgiving feast and invited their
On the day of the feast, Chief Massosoit came with ninety Indians. There were turkeys,
deer meat and fish to eat. The feast lasted three days. When the food ran low, the Indians
went out to shoot more birds and animals.
The Pilgrims and Indians competed in races, wrestling, shooting and other games. The
Pilgrims addressed prayers and thanks to God for providing food, shelter, freedom of
religion and friendly Indians in this new land.
Ever since 1621, Thanksgiving celebrations include memories of that special occasion.
Today, turkeys, cranberries, corn and squash are usually part of the Thanksgiving meal.
In the United States, Thanksgiving Day is a national holiday. It is celebrated every year on
the fourth Thursday in November.
In Canada, where the harvest is earlier, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second
Monday of October. The celebration always includes giving thanks for the good things that people have received, especially for food and families. Along with this goes the
Thanksgiving meal, when so many good things are eaten.
Article 70 The Calgary Stampede
The "Wild West," as we know it from Hollywood westerns, did not last a long time. Its
height was from about 1865 to 1885, or only twenty years. By 1885, there were railways
across the plains, fences had been built around farms and ranches and lawmen were on
the lookout for any troublemakers. Not only that, but by 1885 nearly all the buffalo had
been killed, and most of the Indians were on reservations.
Still the "Wild West' had captured the imagination of the reading public. A former buffalo
hunter and Indian scout, Buffalo Bill Cody, decided to take advantage of his fame as a
cowboy. In 1883, he organized "Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show," and toured North America
Alberta, Canada had been the last part of the old west to be settled. But by 1912,
ranching was being replaced by farming. The city of Calgary was itself becoming a
commercial and industrial center. Old-timers looked back fondly to the old days of
cowboys and Indians.
In 1908, the Miller Brothers' Wild West Show visited Calgary. One of the cowboys, Guy
Weadick, talked to local businessmen about putting on a rodeo and the Wild West Show.
Eventually, four Calgary businessmen put up $25,000 each to finance the event.
Weadick was a good organizer. He advertised all over the U.S. and the Canadian west for
cowboys and rodeo-riders to come. And with $25,000 in prize money, people came from
as far away as Mexico. Weadick was able to persuade the Canadian government to let
large numbers of Indians leave their reservations to attend. In fact, the Indians were a big
part of the program.
The main rodeo events were bronco riding, bareback riding, women's bronco riding,
steer roping and bulldogging. These events were based on things that working cowboys
actually did. But to make them harder, special bucking horses were brought in. One
horse named Cyclone had never been ridden long by anyone. He had thrown 127 riders
in a row.
Most of the rodeo cowboys came from the United States - from Wyoming, Oregon,
Oklahoma, Colorado and Arizona. But there were also Canadian cowboys and some
Canadian Indians competing.
Queen Victoria's son, the Duke of Connaught, was the grand marshal. Many cowboys
rode well, but no one could stay on Cyclone. On the sixth and final day, the grounds were
muddy from rain, and the horses kept slipping. Cyclone escaped from his handlers and
ran around the track. For this last bronco-riding contest, Cyclone's rider would be Tom
Three Persons. Three Persons was a Blood Indian from Southern Alberta. When Three
Persons got on Cyclone, the horse would rear up, then plunge its head down to throw the
rider. Cyclone acted as though it would topple over backwards, but Three Persons hung
on. Then it hurled itself forward with its head almost touching the ground. After a wild
ride of several minutes, Cyclone began to tire. The judges declared Tom Three Persons
the winner of the bucking bronco event. Three Persons was the only Canadian to win a
major event at that first Calgary Stampede in 1912.
Today, the Calgary Stampede continues to be the largest rodeo and Wild West show in
North America. It has many new events and attractions and still attracts the best rodeo riders from all over North America.
Article 71 The Expulsion of the Acadians
The history of the Americas, from their discovery by Columbus till the founding of
modern nation states, has been the struggle among European powers for the largest and
richest sections of the continents. In particular, England and France have struggled for
control of most of North America. Many tragedies and disasters have marked this conflict,
but few have been as heart-rendering as the expulsion of the Acadians in 1755.
"Acadia" refers to what are now the Maritime Provinces of Canada - New Brunswick,
Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. In 1605, a French expedition under De Monts and
Champlain established an agricultural settlement at Port-Royal in present day Nova
Scotia. Although Port-Royal and other colonies had very mixed success, there was a
gradual increase of French settlement through the seventeenth century. By 1710, the
French, or Acadian, population had reached 2,100.
In 1710, Port-Royal fell to the English, and the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 confirmed British
ownership of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. By this treaty, the Acadians, that is the
French-speaking inhabitants, were allowed to stay or leave the country as they pleased.
The majority of inhabitants of Acadia were French and were still being influenced by
agents from France and Quebec. This made their loyalty to Britain very doubtful in time
of war. Governor Philipps attempted to get the Acadians to swear an oath of allegiance to
King George of England. And Philipps was able in 1729 to get the French settlers to
agree to a modified oath, with the understanding that they would not have to fight
against the French and their Indian allies.
The Acadians remained neutral during the fighting between Britain and France in 1744-45
in Nova Scotia. In 1749, the British established a new capital for Nova Scotia at Halifax,
and began to bring in English-speaking settlers. Because of threats from the French and
Indians, most of these settlers remained close to Halifax.
British skirmishes with the French and Indians continued, and a new war between France
and England was approaching. Governor Lawrence decided that it was time to settle the
Acadian question. He ordered the Acadians either to take an unqualified oath of
allegiance to England, or to face expulsion from the colony. At that time, in 1755, there
were troops and ships from New England in the area, and it seemed like an opportune
time to round up the Acadians and ship them out.
When the Acadians refused to take the oath which might oblige them to fight against
France, the British rounded up about 6,000 of the 8,000 Acadians, burned their homes,
and shipped them away to the British colonies of Virginia, the Carolinas, and as far as
the mouth of the Mississippi River. Several of the transport ships sank, drowning all on
board, and the Acadians died from disease and hardship.
Since the expulsion order did not come from London, it has been suggested that
Governor Lawrence had personal reasons for the expulsion. He may have been greedy
for the land and possessions confiscated from the Acadians. Others say that there was
the genuine fear for the English position in North America, and that Lawrence was only
protecting the interests of the colony.
Acadians still live in Maritime Canada today. Almost 2,000 fled into the woods and eluded
the round-up. Another 2,000 Acadians later returned from exile to take the oath of allegiance. Many stories were told of their sufferings. One tale relates how on the very day of his
wedding, a bridegroom was seized by the British and transported from the colony. His
bride wandered for many years through the American colonies trying to find him. At last,
when she was old, she found him on his deathbed. The shock of finding him, and his
death, soon caused her death. This is the story of Henry W. Longfellow's poem
Article 72 The Florida Everglades
Southern Florida stretches south, dividing the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico.
Stretching further south is the Florida Keys. These coral islands are the southernmost
part of the United States.
Since much of southern Florida is close to sea level, it is very swampy. The famous
Everglades are wetlands where tall grass and bunches of trees grow. Part of these
swamps has been drained for agricultural land. The soil is rich and market gardening is
an important activity.
The Everglades that remain are too wet to be used for farming. The Everglades are a
"river of grass." The deeper water areas stay wet all year, but the shallower pools dry up
in the dry season. Some of the water has been drained off for agricultural purposes,
making the Everglades drier. Nonetheless, the best way to travel in this region is by
airboats. These high boats can go through water and sail over clumps of grass.
Besides the wet grasslands, southern Florida has smaller areas of tropical forest. These
areas of hardwood trees are called hammocks, and they are rich in animal and plant life.
Along much of the coast are mangrove trees, which provide important nesting grounds
for wild birds.
The Florida Keys stretch 200 miles from Miami southwest. These islands are tropical in
climate. Fishing and tourism are important industries.
Because of its sub-tropical nature, the animal and plant life of southern Florida differs
from other parts of U.S.A. Characteristic animals are alligators and crocodiles. Alligators
prefer fresh water and usually live inland, while crocodiles live in salt water along the
coats. Both animals are considered dangerous. Alligator wrestling is considered a sport
for the brave or foolhardy.
Probably Florida is most famous for its birds. At one time, many species were almost
extinct. Their long feathers were used on women's hats. Now the law protects them.
Florida has at least six species of herons, several egrets, wood storks, white ibises and
cormorants. Characteristic Florida birds are the purple gallinule, the anhinga, the limpkin,
flamingoes and roseate spoonbills. Many of these birds are notable for their size,
colouring and interesting habits.
Notable animals include the key deer, a miniature form of the white-tailed deer. There are
also panthers or cougars, bobcats, marsh rabbits, mangrove squirrels, round-tailed
muskrats and the manatee.
Naturally, the Everglades are home to many reptiles. Snakes are common-- both water
snakes and land species. There are four poisonous varieties. Both land and sea turtles
abound and lizards are fairly common.
Fishing is a major industry. Sports fishermen go to sea in search of trophies, such as
marlin, sailfish and tarpon. Smaller fish are caught commercially. Fresh water sport fish
include bass and gar. After many decades of work to protect the animals and plants of the Everglades, the
region finally became a National Park in 1947. It is the third largest park in the U.S.A. and
covers one and a half million acres. Within the park live 300 kinds of birds, 30 kinds of
mammals, 65 kinds of reptiles and amphibians, and nearly 1,000 species of flowering
plants. Of course, it is a major tourist attraction.
Article 73 The Great Walls of China
The Great Wall of China is famous in North America, and many tourists would like to
travel there. However, most North Americans don't know very much about Chinese
history. That is changing now, as China is becoming an important subject for study in the
The settled communities of China were targets for nomadic raids since earliest times. For
much of its early history, China was not fully unified. However, Shih Huang, who died in
210 B.C., united the whole country. Then he set about defending China from the northern
nomads. It seems likely that there had been defensive walls in the north before. However,
Shih Huang had a wall constructed across the entire north of China. This defensive wall
extended for almost 2,000 miles and had 25,000 towers. Such walls were very expensive
to build. They also required huge numbers of men to construct them, and later to defend
Even so, the Great Wall did not stop nomadic invasions altogether. Not long after Shih
Huang's death, a tribe called the Huns crossed the wall. The Emperor Hu Ti, who
expanded Chinese power beyond the Wall, defeated them.
Centuries later, the Mongols to the north of China were united under Genghis Khan. The
Mongols attacked China, and Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis, became the first nonChinese emperor of China in 1279. Eventually, the Chinese rebelled and overthrew their
Mongol rulers. Nonetheless, the Mongols remained a threat. In 1449, they destroyed a
Chinese army and captured the Emperor.
A new Great Wall was begun to keep the Mongols out. This is the wall which tourists visit
today and which is pictured on Chinese stamps. Construction continued for 200 years.
While some parts were built of packed earth, much of the wall was built of stone, brick
and rubble. This is why it took so long. Stones had to be quarried, and bricks baked and
carried to the site. Labourers, peasants, soldiers and criminals were forced to work on
the wall. Large and small forts and watchtowers carefully guarded the wall. Nearly a
million soldiers were stationed along it.
The Chinese defenders lit fires when the enemy was sighted. Plumes of smoke and
cannon shots told that the enemy was advancing and how many there were. By 1644, the
new wall was almost completed.
That same year, however, an internal uprising overthrew the Emperor. This revolt was
partly caused by the high taxes demanded to pay for the wall. The Emperor's men invited
the nomadic Manchu tribe to come through the gates in the wall to help put down the
revolt. The Manchus came; but they stayed, and ruled China for several hundred years.
Since the Manchus ruled both north and south of the wall, they did not care about
maintaining it. Many parts fell into disrepair, and some completely disappeared. Today
the parts that remain are a major tourist attraction. The Great Wall of China is one of the
wonders of the world. Even if it didn't really succeed in its purpose of keeping the
northern nomads out of China.
Article 74 The Internet
The first working computers in the 1950s and 1960s were large mainframe machines. In
some ways, they were like large calculating machines. The U.S. government, the military
and businesses and institutions used them for specific tasks. For example, they might be
used to handle the payroll.
As more uses were found for computers, the need to transfer data from one computer to
another became a concern. In 1969, the U.S. government sponsored a program to explore
ways for computers to transfer data over telephone lines. The first Internet was created
with four computers linked together.
Of course, computer use increased beyond anyone's expectations. Standards were
developed that describe how data was to be transferred between computers. A common
language for commands and communications emerged. Operating programs such as
MS-DOS, UNIX, Macintosh and Windows came into existence.
The Internet quickly expanded beyond government and military uses. The PC became the
standard form of computer. Private agencies acted as hosts for Internet usage. Around
1982, there were 213 hosts; by 1986, there were 2,300; today, there are millions.
The role of computers expanded so quickly that the U.S.S.R., which had discouraged
computer use, found itself left behind by the U.S.A. Part of the reason for the collapse of
the Soviet Union in 1989 was that they had fallen too far behind the United States in high
tech areas to ever catch up.
One of the most popular uses of the computer is electronic mail, or e-mail. You can send
a letter by computer over the Internet to anywhere in the world in seconds or less. And it
doesn't cost anything extra. Now data can be transferred great distances almost
Another major Internet use is the World Wide Web. In the early days, all web pages were
text only. In the 1990s, it became possible to make web pages interactive and multi-media.
Interactive means that readers could click on items on the web page and get more
information. They could also communicate directly with the web-page owner. Multi-media
means that web pages were no longer text only. They could also have graphics,
film/video, and audio. This has helped to turn computers into popular entertainment.
Nowadays, people spend hours every day surfing the net. However, there are some
problems. For some people, computers are addictive. Many businesses are trying to
control employees using the net during working hours. Since the Internet includes just
about every kind of information, not all of it is good. You can find directions on how to be
a criminal or a terrorist. There are scam artists who want to cheat you out of your money.
There are also aggressive, pornography salesmen, not to mention people who want to
kill your computer with viruses.
Since the Internet is not closely regulated, it is up to individual users to follow computer
etiquette. Parents need to supervise their children's use of the net. Although the Internet
has some disadvantages, many people see the net as one of the greatest inventions of
Article 75 The Planetarium
All around the world stargazing is a popular activity. The night sky lit up with stars is one
of the most impressive scenes in nature. Besides its natural beauty, people study the
night sky for many reasons. Some believe that they can read the future in the stars.
Others think that the stars influence the weather, while some people worship the stars
and the planets.
There is a problem with stargazing. If the night is cloudy, people on the ground cannot
see the stars, also bad weather makes being outside at night uncomfortable. Besides, not
everybody wants to stay up late at night.
A planetarium is an ideal solution to all these problems. A planetarium is usually a large
dome-covered building. It has seating like a theatre. The program here is a star show. A
special projector throws a picture of the night sky on the ceiling of the planetarium
theatre. Like a movie projector, the planetarium projector can show a constantly
changing program. It can show how the stars look right now, how they looked thousands
of years ago, and how they will look in the future.
Planetariums can be both entertaining and educational. School children can go to learn
about the nine planets of the solar system, or about the various groupings of stars.
Planetariums can teach you how to find the stars and planets yourself when you are out
at night. There can also be dramatic showings about changes to the universe over time.
This is also a way to view special phenomena, like Halley's Comet, which only appears
once in a lifetime.
Planetariums can also show how ancient people viewed the skies. Shepherds, living out
under the sky, imagined that groups of stars represented wonderful people and huge
animals. Stories were told about these constellations. Sometimes, the story explained
how the people or animals became stars. For example, why Orion, the mighty hunter, is
chasing Taurus the Bull. Planetariums can project these figures on their screen.
They can also speed up changes in the heavens. It takes about 28 days for the moon to
travel through all its phases. Changes in the moon, or in the sun, can be shown easily.
Planetariums can also show the sky the way it appears in another part of the world. Or
the way it appeared on a famous historical occasion.
Special heavenly phenomena, such as a meteor shower, can also be demonstrated.
Things that appear only rarely in the real sky can be shown every night. A planetarium is
usually concerned to put in special programs to keep its audience coming back. Since
the heavens are always moving and changing, there is no shortage of ideas for
Article 76 Alexander Graham Bell
The Victorian period was a time of many new inventions. Earlier discoveries, such as the
steam engine, the screw propeller, the power of electricity, and the possibility of sending
messages along a wire, were now applied to everyday life. Inventors such as Thomas
Edison and Nicholas Tesla explored new methods for harnessing electric power. Some of
the greatest discoveries were made by Alexander Graham Bell.
Bell was born in Scotland in 1847. Both his father and grandfather taught speech
methods and worked with deaf and dumb children. Alexander was also interested in this
work, especially as his mother was almost deaf. Alexander's two brothers died of
tuberculosis, and he himself contracted the disease, so his parents decided to leave
Scotland for a drier, healthier climate. They moved to Brantford, Ontario, Canada, and
lived in a roomy, comfortable house overlooking the Grand River. Today, the Bell
Homestead is an historical museum that attracts visitors from all over the world.
At that time, Canada did not have a lot of business opportunities, so Alexander found a
job teaching speech in Boston, U.S.A. But he returned to Brantford every summer. In
Boston, Bell married one of his deaf students. His father-in-law suggested that there
were good business opportunities in inventing communication devices. Bell soon
developed a method for sending more than one telegraph message at the same time.
While working on improving the telegraph, Bell and his assistant, Thomas Watson, found
a way to send the human voice over wires. On August 10, 1876, Bell sent the first
telephone message over wires strung between Brantford and Paris, Ontario - eight miles
away. The telephone caused an international sensation, with government leaders asking
to have one. But Bell didn't stop there. He worked on the recording properties of wax
cylinders and other approaches to flat phonograph records. He also developed the
photophone, which later led to the development of the motion picture sound track.
Bell worked on these inventions at his laboratory in Washington, D.C., but he didn't like
the hot humid summer weather there. So Bell began looking for a new place to spend his
summers. He decided to build a summer home in Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The
Island reminded Bell of his native Scotland.
Now he had space during the summer to do experiments outside. He soon began to
experiment with flying machines. Bell designed and tested huge kites, hoping to come up
with a frame for a flying machine. Along with some enthusiastic friends, Bell also
experimented with airplanes. On February 23, 1909, one of these planes flew through the
air for half a mile. This was the first airplane flight in the British Empire. The Alexander
Graham Bell Museum at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, displays many of these inventions.
Bell was also interested in making a faster boat. Since much of a boat stays under water,
the water resistance slows the boat down. Bell thought that if you could raise the boat
out of the water it would go much faster. Working on Cape Breton Island, Bell and his
friends developed the hydrofoil, a boat that would skim the surface of the water at high
speeds. Hydrofoils are in use in many places today.
Every time people use the telephone, listen to a recording, watch a movie or television,
or ride on a hydrofoil, they owe a debt to that great inventor, Alexander Graham Bell.
Article 77 The Story of Anne Frank
War, persecution, and economic depression affect not only adults, but also old people,
children, babies, the sick and the handicapped. Since history is written mostly about
politicians, soldiers, intellectuals and criminals, we don't read very often about how
events affect ordinary people. Now and then a special book will shed light on what it was
like to live in the midst of terrible events. Such a book is "The Diary of Anne Frank."
Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, in 1929. Her father Otto Frank was
a businessman who moved the family to the Netherlands in 1934. In Amsterdam, Otto
started a company selling pectin to make jams and jellies. Later he began a second
company that sold herbs for seasoning meat.
Otto Frank had decided to leave Germany because of the policies and personality of the
new German Chancellor Adolph Hitler. Hitler had a personal hatred not only for Jewish
people but also for everything Jewish. He felt that one way to strengthen Germany and
solve its problems was to kill or drive out all the Jews. Hitler also felt that other groups,
such as blacks, gypsies, the handicapped, homosexuals and the chronically unemployed
should be eliminated. Then only strong healthy "true Germans" would be left.
Since Hitler had a plan to solve Germany's economic problems, he received a lot of
popular support. Very few Germans realized that he was mentally and emotionally
unbalanced and would kill anyone who got in his way.
The Frank family was Jewish, and they felt that they would be safe in the Netherlands.
However, in May 1940, Germany invaded the Netherlands and soon took over the
government. In 1941, laws were passed to keep Jews separate from other Dutch citizens.
The following year, Dutch Jews began to be shipped to concentration camps in Germany
and Poland. Just before this began, Anne Frank, Otto's younger daughter, received a
diary for her 13th birthday. Less than a month later, the whole family went into hiding.
Otto Frank had made friends with the Dutch people who worked with him in his business
operations. Now these friends were ready to help him, even though hiding Jews from the
authorities was treated as a serious crime.
Behind Otto Frank's business offices, there was another house that was not visible from
the street. Here the Franks moved many of their things. Only a few trusted people knew
they were living there. The Franks moved into these small rooms on July 6, 1942, and
they lived there with another Jewish family, the Van Pels, until the police captured them
on August 4, 1944. So, for more than two years, the two families never went outside. All
their food and supplies had to be brought to them.
During this period, Anne Frank told her diary all her thoughts and fears. Like any teenage
girl, she hoped that good things would happen to her, that she would become a writer or
a movie star. She complained that her parents treated her like a child. She insisted that
she was grown up.
She also talked about how difficult it was to live in a small area with seven other people
and not be able to go outside. She wrote about the war and hoped that the Netherlands
would soon be liberated from the Germans. Anne sometimes envied her older sister,
Margot, who was so much more mature, and who never got into trouble. She and Margot
wrote letters to each other to pass the time. Anne even had a romance with Peter van
Pels, who was seventeen.
Then all their fears came true. All the eight Jews hiding in the house were arrested and
eventually sent to the Auschwitz death camp in Poland. Although the war was ending, it
did not end soon enough for the Frank family. Only Otto Frank survived the war.
One of their helpers, Miep Gies, saved Anne's diary and kept it. After the war, Otto Frank
decided to publish it. Since 1947 more than 20 million copies have been sold in 55
languages. Anne's diary shows the terrible cost of hatred, persecution and war better
than any history book.
Article 78 Charlotte Church
Many years ago, a German opera impresario was asked why so many of his leading
ladies were physically unattractive. He replied, "The ones who look like horses, sing like
nightingales, and vice versa." Certainly, a good voice doesn't always go with an attractive
appearance. But in our day of media images, good looks seem very important.
Charlotte Church recorded her first album when she was 12 years old. It was called,
"Voice of an Angel." Everyone agreed that the little girl has a very big voice. And they
were delighted that Charlotte not only sounded like an angel, she also looked like one.
Her sweet schoolgirl appearance and winning smile are part of her success.
Charlotte Church was born in Cardiff, Wales in February, 1986. Music and singing are
very important in Welsh culture, and all of Charlotte's family were musical. Although
Wales is part of Great Britain, the Welsh people are very proud of their own language,
history and heritage. Now that Wales has its own parliament at Cardiff, Welsh culture is
promoted even more strongly. Charlotte sings some of her songs in the Welsh language.
Charlotte began singing along with the radio as an infant, and by the age of three she
could sing a number of popular songs. She began singing lessons when she was nine.
Charlotte first appeared on television early in 1997. This led to a number of other TV and
concert appearances. In 1998, she signed a contract with Sony to record five albums.
Since Charlotte's first album appeared, she has spent a lot of time doing promotional
tours. Since she is a schoolgirl, her two tutors travel along with her. "Voice of an Angel"
was recorded in five days in Cardiff, Wales. All the songs were ones that Charlotte
already knew and liked. These included "Pie Jesus," "The Lord's Prayer," "Jerusalem,"
and "Danny Boy." The album came out on November 9, 1998, and within a couple of
weeks was number four on the popular music charts. She recorded her second album,
"Charlotte Church," in 1999.
Travelling involves doing "showcases" for people in the music industry and the media.
This is to encourage people to promote your music. Charlotte also appeared on various
U.S. talk shows, including David Letterman and Jay Leno. She finds that she gets asked
the same questions over and over again.
Besides media celebrities, Charlotte has met many leading public figures. Since she is
Roman Catholic, Charlotte was especially excited to meet the Pope. This was after she
had been invited to sing at a Christmas concert at the Vatican. She was also asked to
sing at Prince Charles' fiftieth birthday party in 1998. She saw the Prince again in 1999,
when she sang at the official opening of the Welsh National Assembly. Queen Elizabeth
and Prince Philip talked to her too. Later that year, she sang for Bill and Hilary Clinton at
the Ford Theatre in Washington.
Something that people like about Charlotte Church is that she hasn't been spoiled by
fame. Many show business kids are loud, brash, noisy and rude. But when she is away
from the stage, the young singer leads a normal life with her family and friends. Even
when she is on TV, she comes across as an ordinary teenager, but a very nice one.
Charlotte's voice always gets comments. It seems like such a big voice for a little girl.
Very few teenagers have a powerful operatic voice like hers. Some people have found it
hard to believe that it is actually Charlotte singing.
For the most part, she enjoys her success. She likes to travel and meet new people. Los
Angeles is her favourite city, and she likes the United States and Canada. But she is
always glad to get home to Wales and be with her friends. At the moment, she goes to an
all-girl school, so she doesn't see boys very often. But, at age fifteen, an interest in boys
is likely to become a factor in her life.
Charlotte now has recorded three albums, and we can expect a fourth in 2001. She has
also written an account of her life for all her fans. It is entitled, "Voice of an Angel: My
Life (So Far)."
Article 79 Christmas Holidays
In many ways, Christmas is the most important holiday in North America. It is the most
important commercial festival. Most retail stores do half of their annual business in the
six weeks or so before Christmas. Christmas is an important holiday from work and
school. Many workers take the whole week off between Christmas and New Year's Day. It
is the biggest time of the year for parties, gift-giving, home decorations and visiting.
Many homeowners compete to see who can have the best display of lights. It is also an
important time for the entertainment industry. Many Christmas movies, TV shows,
recordings, concerts and plays are produced every year for the Christmas season. It is
also the time of year when the largest number of people attend church, because
Christmas is a religious festival too. It celebrates the birthday of Jesus.
How all these different things came together to become Christmas is a long story. Why,
for example, is Jesus' birthday celebrated on December 25th? No one knows the exact
day that Jesus was born. But, Jesus was born during the Roman Empire and, for the
Romans, December 25th was a very important day.
The Romans had many gods and many religions. Two religions, both of which had one
main god, were the worship of the Invincible Sun and of Mithras. These gods were both
honoured on December 25th. Because December 25th was just after the shortest day of
the year, it was a natural time to worship the sun.
December was also a time to celebrate the end of the agriculture year. The Romans held
one of their main festivals, the Saturnalia, beginning on December 17th. It lasted for a
week. The Romans also began the custom of celebrating New Year's Day on January 1st.
So the last half of December and the beginning of January was a wonderful time for
partying and games.
The early Christians didn't know what day Jesus was born. At first, they celebrated his
birthday on January 6th. However, as most of the people in the Roman Empire were
becoming Christians, it was decided to move the date to December 25th. The celebration
lasted twelve days until January 6th, and took the place of all other festivals. That way,
people who were used to celebrating on December 25th would feel more comfortable.
As different peoples became Christian, they brought their own customs to be part of
Christmas. The people of northern Europe used evergreen trees and mistletoe as
symbols of spring and eternal life. The evergreen tree became the Christmas tree. The
mistletoe is hung from the ceiling at Christmas for couples to kiss under it. It was also in
northern Europe where the idea of Santa Claus, or Father Christmas, began.
In Roman times, there was a man who became known as Saint Nicholas. He is said to
have given gifts to the poor and provided dowries for poor girls who wouldn't otherwise
be able to marry. The idea of the gift-giving Saint became joined with the northern idea of
Spirit of Christmas festivities.
It was a poem written in 1831 by the American writer, Clement Moore, which popularized
Santa Claus throughout the world. "Twas the night before Christmas..." told the story of
how Santa visits every house in the world on Christmas Eve and brings toys for good
girls and boys. Since that time, parents have secretly bought toys for their children at
Christmas. When the children awake on Christmas Day, they find toys by the chimney, or
under the Christmas tree. They are told that Santa Claus and his reindeer brought them.
Adults also give gifts to each other at Christmas time. No wonder that the stores sell so
many things then! It is often said that Christmas is becoming too commercialized. In the
rush to get everything ready--to buy the gifts, decorate the house and tree, give parties,
visit family and friends, and attend special Christmas events--the original reason for
celebrating is sometimes forgotten. Only when people go to church, or sing Christmas
carols, or attend musical performances about Jesus' birth, do they remember that
Christmas is the birthday of Christ.
Article 80 Garage Sales and Yard Sales
Every Saturday morning in our part of the world - except in winter - many people drive
around the city looking for yard sales. Yard sales, or garage sales, often take place in the
driveway of someone's home, or perhaps on the front lawn. The homeowners take out all
the stuff they don't want and arrange it in front of their house. Usually, they put a price
tag on items. People driving by will stop to see if there is anything they want.
Many people spend every Saturday morning shopping at yard sales. If they find that they
have bought too many things, then they have a yard sale of their own.
Some of the shoppers are dealers who buy things for resale. Sometimes they resell them
at their own yard sales. But some dealers are professionals who run antique stores, used
bookshops, flea markets or used furniture and appliance stores. Usually the dealers will
try to get to the yard sale before anyone else. That way they have the best selection.
Often they will try to buy items for less than the price tag says. The cheaper they can buy
the item, the more profit they can make when they resell it. Their motto is, "Buy low. Sell
Sometimes a merchant will boast that he paid one dollar for a glass or china cup at a
yard sale, and sold it for $100 at his store, or on the Internet. By having catalogues that
show the value of "collectibles," dealers can sometimes make large profits. Now,
however, many of the people having yard sales will try to check the value of the things
they are selling first. So it is getting harder to get a real bargain.
One reason for yard sales is that North Americans often live in big houses, which fill up
with things. People may use the basement, the attic, the spare room and the garage to
store things that they are not using. If they store things in their garage, all they have to
do is open the garage door to have a garage sale. When children grow up and move away,
the parents will often sell the children's old clothes, toys and furniture.
Another reason for yard sales is that there are a lot of things that people might like, but
don't want to pay full price for. For example, if someone likes to read novels, they may be
happy to pay one dollar for a book at a yard sale, rather than 20 or 30 dollars at a retail
What sorts of things are sold at yard sales? Just about anything that you might find in a
house or a yard. There are ornaments, china, home decorations, sports equipment,
bicycles, games, dolls, toys, tables and chairs, lamps, appliances, books, records,
paintings, clothes, record players, and much more. Some items are things that were
popular a few years ago but have now gone out of fashion. This might include many toys,
books and games that relate to an old television show that is no longer being shown.
While a lot of older people go to yard sales, so do a lot of students. Students and young
people may need cheap furniture for their apartment or a bicycle to get to school or work.
They may not be able to pay full price. If you are lucky, you can find almost anything at a
yard sale. The trick is to get there early. Most yard sales are advertised to start at 9:00 am,
but dealers may arrive as early as 7:30 am. By 10:00 am the busiest part is already over,
although most yard sales go on into the afternoon. Yard sales tend to prove the common
saying that "one person's trash is another person's treasure."
Article 81 Helen Keller
What would it be like to be unable to see anything, hear anything, or say anything? Life
for young Helen Keller was like that. She had had an illness before she was two years old
that had left her deaf, dumb and blind. After that, it was difficult for her to communicate
with anyone. She could only learn by feeling with her hands. This was very frustrating for
Helen, her mother and her father.
Helen Keller grew up in Alabama, U.S.A., during the 1880s and 1890s. At that time, people
who had lost the use of their eyes, ears and mouth often ended up in charitable
institutions. Such a place would provide them with basic food and shelter until they died.
Or they could go out on the streets with a beggar's bowl and ask strangers for money.
Since Helen's parents were not poor, she did not have to do either of these things. But
her parents knew that they would have to do something to help her.
One day, when she was six years old, Helen became frustrated that her mother was
spending so much time with the new baby. Unable to express her anger, Helen tipped
over the baby's crib, nearly injuring the baby. Her parents were horrified and decided to
take the last chance open to them. They would try to find someone to teach Helen to
A new school in Boston claimed to be able to teach children like Helen. The Kellers wrote
a letter to the school in Boston asking for help. In March 1887, a teacher, twenty year old
Anne Sullivan arrived at the Keller's home in Tuscumbia, Alabama.
Anne Sullivan herself had had a very difficult life. Her mother had died when she was
eight. Two years later, their father had abandoned Anne and her little brother Jimmy.
Anne was nearly blind and her brother had a diseased hip. No one wanted the two
handicapped children, so they were sent to a charitable institution. Jimmy died there. At
age 14, Anne, who was not quite blind, was sent to the school for the blind in Boston.
Since she had not had any schooling before, she had to start in Grade One. Then she had
an operation that gave her back some of her eyesight. Since Anne knew what it was like
to be blind, she was a sympathetic teacher.
Before Anne could teach Helen anything, she had to get her attention. Because Helen
was so hard to communicate with, she was often left alone to do as she pleased. A few
days after she arrived, Anne insisted that Helen learn to sit down at the table and eat
breakfast properly. Anne told the Kellers to leave, and she spent all morning in the
breakfast room with Helen. Finally, after a difficult struggle she got the little girl to sit at
the table and use a knife and fork.
Since the Keller family did not like to be strict with Helen, Anne decided that she needed
to be alone with her for a while. There was a little cottage away from the big house. The
teacher and pupil moved there for some weeks. It was here that Anne taught Helen the
manual alphabet. This was a system of sign language. But since Helen couldn't see,
Anne had to make the signs in her hands so that she could feel them. For a long time,
Helen had no idea what the words she was learning meant. She learned words like "box"
and "cat," but hadn't learned that they referred to those objects. One day, Anne dragged
Helen to a water pump and made the signs for "water" while she pumped water over
Helen's hands. Helen at last made the connection between the signs and the thing.
"Water" was that cool, wet liquid stuff. Once Helen realized that the manual alphabet
could be used to name things, she ran around naming everything. Before too long, she
began to make sentences using the manual alphabet. She also learned to read and write using the "Square Hand Alphabet" which was made up of raised square letters. Before
long, she was also using Braille and beginning to read books.
Helen eventually learned to speak a little, although this was hard for her because she
couldn't hear herself. She went on to school and then to Radcliffe College. She wrote
articles and books, gave lectures, and worked tirelessly to help the blind. The little girl
who couldn't communicate with anyone became, in time, a wonderful communicator.
Article 82 Trial By Jury
If you are a citizen of Canada or the United States, it is very likely that you will be
summoned at some time for jury duty. A letter will come in the mail, telling you to report
to a certain place at a given time. There are legal penalties for not attending, because jury
duty is considered every citizen's responsibility. Often a large number of people, perhaps
several hundred, will be summoned at one time.
When you arrive, you will join a line-up of others who are registering for duty. Eventually,
you will get to a table and talk to an official. If you have a special reason for not being a
juror, such as ill health, you may be excused at this point. Those not immediately
exempted become a part of a "jury panel." Out of this panel, a number of juries of twelve
people will be chosen. These will decide a variety of criminal cases over the next few
What follows is the experience of one woman in a "jury pool." She went with the others
into a large courtroom where they spent the whole day. At the front of the courtroom
were the judge, and the lawyers for the prosecution and for the defence. One of the
lawyers explained what the case was going to be about. The names of the jury panel
were in a box at the front. When someone's name was called, they went up to the front of
The person called up would then have a chance to explain why they couldn't serve as a
juror, if there was some reason preventing them. For example, one woman was
dismissed because she knew the accused. The first jury to be chosen was for a burglary
case. A panel member went forward and faced the accused. Then the lawyers in the trial
decided whether the juror was satisfactory to them. At lunchtime, the panel was
dismissed for an hour.
The second jury was to try someone on a charge of murder. Usually the panel was told
approximately how long the trial might be. Since jurors are not usually paid, many would
like to avoid being involved in a long trial. The woman was called forward and had to look
the man accused of murder in the eye. This made her quite nervous. Judging by her
expression, the two lawyers would decide whether they wanted her on the jury or not.
The defence lawyer would try to choose someone who seemed sympathetic to the man
accused. The prosecutor would prefer someone who was not sympathetic. The woman
excused herself by saying that she had a very young child to look after and no relatives
to help. She was allowed to go home at the end of the day.
Some people wonder whether it is fair for lawyers to dismiss jurors who may not be
sympathetic to their cases. For example, defence lawyers may try to choose young
people if they think that these will be less severe to their clients. In the case above, the
lawyer seemed to prefer women to men. This means that a lot of people are dismissed
from being jurors without a good reason.
One principle of the jury system, however, is to protect the rights of the accused particularly well. One might say that the jury system is biased in favour of the defendant.
This is why defence lawyers have an opportunity to dismiss people who they think will
not be favourable to their clients.
Furthermore, having twelve jurors gives the defence a good opportunity for a successful
defence. If the defence attorney can raise a reasonable doubt about the guilt of his client
in even one juror, then the accused has a chance of being released. This happened in the
O.J. Simpson murder trial. There, even though there was strong evidence that Simpson
committed the crime, the defence was able to insinuate some doubts among the jurors.
Moreover, the defence lawyers may be able to appeal to the emotions of the jurors,
particularly if they can think of a way to gain sympathy for their client.
For this reason, defence lawyers are more likely to choose trial by jury over trial by judge
alone. A judge is less likely to be swayed by emotion than a jury. And a defence attorney
may also prefer a criminal trial to a civil suit. In the latter case, the client does not have to
be proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt but will be found liable if the preponderance
of evidence is against him or her. This is why O.J. Simpson was acquitted on criminal
charges, but then found liable for damages in a civil suit.
Article 83 A Favourite Place
It is good to have a favorite place where you can go to be alone and relax. Sometimes,
this spot is your own room or a quiet part of the house. Sometimes, it is somewhere
outdoors away from people and busy streets. Or you may feel most comfortable in a
shopping mall or a downtown park.
Our favorite place is especially nice to go to at times of stress. When work gets too
hectic, or we have trouble with other people, then our favorite place is a refuge from
My special spot is very close to where I work. It is on a busy university campus. At one
end of the university, hidden among several buildings, there is a pond. This pond is
surrounded by large rocks, which rise up like a small cliff on one side. Shooting out of
these rocks are water pipes, which create a small waterfall. The water is drawn up from
the bottom of the pond and drops back into the middle. This keeps the water from
On the other side of the pond, there is a grassy shore and a flat stone patio. Here, in the
summer, people can sit out and have meals. Yet, very few people come here to sit;
perhaps because they are very busy with their work.
There is something very calm and pleasant about trees and grass and shade, about birds
singing and water rippling, and flowers blooming all around. Green is a relaxing color for
the eyes. Still water suggests peace. Running water seems full of life.
There is a large weeping willow tree on the grassy side of the pond. Its branches touch
the water and shade much of the pond. Rushes grow in the shallow water. The pond is
only about three feet deep. In the summer, there are beautiful water lilies in bloom over
much of the pond. Sometimes, I have counted over thirty blooms, and some flowers are
over five inches wide.
Goldfish and minnows are the pond's chief inhabitants. But there are also crawfish and
other animals. At different times there have been a turtle, a water snake, and a family of
Behind the pond is a large glassy wall, which reflects the entire scene. One can also go
inside and view the pond, even on rainy or snowy days.
There are several gardens close to the pond. One of the gardeners told me that he could
turn the waterfall off and on. Usually on the weekends it is turned off, but if there is a
special event the waterfall is left on.
Behind the glassy wall is a cafeteria. Here, visitors to the university are sometimes taken
for meals. The students do not use it.
In the winter, the pond freezes over. Sometimes, if the winter is very cold the pond
freezes right down to the bottom. Then, most of the goldfish and minnows die. Usually,
some survive in the mud at the bottom of the pond. Occasionally, people will skate on the
pond, if the ice is smooth.
When spring comes, a lot of the old rushes and water lily leaves from the previous year
are cleared away. This makes the pond more attractive and gives the new plants room to
grow. If there are too many rushes, they are sometimes cut down in summer. Then
visitors can see the water lilies better.
Chances are that if you ever visit Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, you will
hear about Pond Inlet. And, if you come in the summer, you will probably see me there,
thinking about my next article.
Article 84 Business Ethics
What do business and ethics have to do with each other? Business is about making
profits. Ethics is about right and wrong. How are they connected? Well, business ethics
is the study of right and wrong as applied to business actions.
Some businessmen would say that there is no need for business ethics. If we don't break
the laws of the country, we have nothing to worry about. However, we can do many bad
things without breaking laws. In some countries, it would be legal for a businessman to
pollute the land, sea and air, to confine his workers to barracks and to hire children to
work in factories. But, these things may not be right. On the other hand, it may be illegal
for a businessman to do some good things. For example, his society may expect him to
treat people unequally and discriminate against some ethnic or religious groups.
In order to know what is right or wrong, we need a moral rule. This rule does not come
from business itself, but from ethics. So we need a statement of what we believe to be
right. The American Declaration of Independence in 1776 states an ethical principle: "We
hold these truths to be self-evident that all men are created equal…." The Declaration
further tells us that all men have a right to "…life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
Principles such as these can be used in American politics and law to decide whether an
action is right or wrong.
Many companies have their own ethical guidelines. IBM, for example, outlines its
corporate ethics under headings such as, "Tips, Gifts and Entertainment," "Accurate
Reporting," "Fair Competition," and "Not boasting." So each employee knows what to do
or not to do in various situations.
Ethical choices are made on three levels. Individuals, by companies and by societies,
make them. An individual might choose whether or not to accept a bribe. A company
might decide whether or not to bribe government officials. A government or society
might decide whether or not to outlaw bribery. Similar principles of right and wrong
might be used at all three levels. For example, it might be decided that bribery is simply
wrong in all situations. On the other hand, it might be decided to view the situation case
by case. In other words, there is a strong ethical stand and a more tentative ethical stand.
The strong ethical stand applies when you have a basic moral principle and apply it to all
situations. For example, you might believe that it was always wrong to let workers handle
hazardous substances without any protection. The weaker stand would consider whether
it is legal to do so. If it is legal to let workers handle dangerous materials, and this
conforms to social expectations, then the weak ethical stand would say, "No problem."
As long as the law is not broken, and no one strenuously objects, then everything is okay.
However, in ethics there is a principle called the "moral minimum." This principle means
that you should never harm another person knowingly. The only exception would be to
protect some other people, or yourself. So business ethics would say that the
businessman who exposes his workers to hazardous chemicals is wrong. He is not
practicing the moral minimum.
Article 85 Colonial Williamsburg
Travelers in the desert or the jungle sometimes see the remains of old cities. These cities
were once large and prosperous, but something has changed. Perhaps the climate got
drier or wetter; perhaps the trade routes, which had brought merchants to the city, now
went elsewhere; perhaps enemies destroyed them; or perhaps disease or famine drove
the people away.
Other cities, which were once important, have become less so in time. Jamestown,
Virginia, the first English colony in America is now only an historic site. It began as the
capital of Virginia. But when fire destroyed the government buildings in 1699, the capital
was moved to nearby Williamsburg.
Williamsburg was an important town for many years. The British Governors lived there,
and two of them worked on the plans for the town and its buildings. The College of
William and Mary was established there in the 1690s - the second oldest college in
America. As the capital, Williamsburg contained many public buildings, including a
courthouse, a jail, a powder magazine, the governor's palace, and the government
building. Of course, there were many private houses as well.
From 1699 until 1780, Williamsburg was the capital of Virginia. Many people came there
for government and legal business. It was also a social center with dances, fairs, horse
races and auctions. The Governor and his wife provided expensive dinners and
entertainment for their guests.
Most of the important people in Virginia owned tobacco plantations. In 1612, John Rolfe
had first raised tobacco to sell to England. Soon tobacco farming was Virginia's most
important business. Most planters were able to build large houses and buy slaves to do
their work. One plantation owner is said to have owned 300,000 acres of land and 1,000
black slaves, as well as having large amounts of money.
The planters were the leaders of this colonial society, and they resented British
interference in their local government. When England imposed taxes on the American
colonists in 1765, it was a Virginian, Patrick Henry, who spoke against them. His words,
"Give me liberty, or give me death" helped to inspire the American Revolution. As
complaints about British rule increased, it was Virginians who led the rebels. George
Washington became commander of the revolutionary army, and Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
85 | P a g e
In 1780, the capital of Virginia was moved to Richmond. Williamsburg was now simply a
small college town of local importance. Not much changed in Williamsburg for many
years. In the twentieth century, the Reverend Dr. Goodwin, who was the priest at the
Williamsburg Church, had the idea of restoring Williamsburg to the way it appeared in
colonial days. Goodwin approached John D. Rockefeller Jr. with his idea, and Rockefeller
agreed to finance the project. Beginning in 1926, the old buildings of Williamsburg were
restored to their original form. First were the college buildings, then the Raleigh Tavern,
the government building, the governor's palace and so on. Buildings that had been
destroyed over time were reconstructed from plans and descriptions.
Soon the restored buildings were opened to the public. Guides, dressed in eighteenth
century costumes, show visitors through the buildings and gardens. Visitors can also
travel to nearby tobacco plantations. Now tourists who pay admission to visit this
wonderful historic town finance much of the work of restoration and conservation.
Article 86 Physics: Newton’s Laws of Motion and Universal Gravitation
Some of the most important ideas in physics are the laws of motion and of universal gravitation.
These laws were discovered during the 1660s by Isaac Newton, an English mathematician and
physicist. The three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation provided a crucial starting
point for later discoveries in theoretical physics.
Let us first consider Newton's three laws of motion. The first law of motion states that every object
in a uniform state of motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is
applied to it. This law is also known as the law of inertia. Newton's first law means that objects tend
to maintain their current velocity: objects at rest tend to stay at rest, and objects in motion tend to
stay in motion.
This law seems to contradict common sense, because the objects we see tend to slow down unless
a force is applied to them; however, this deceleration is due to the force of friction that is caused by
the air, the water, or the ground. If we could study objects moving in a vacuum, those objects would
not slow down at all. The second law of motion explains the relation between the force applied to
an object, the mass of an object, and the acceleration of an object. According to Newton's second
law, the force required to cause a given amount of acceleration of an object of a given mass can be
calculated by multiplying the acceleration of the object by the mass of the object. In other words,
the force, F, equals the mass, m, times the acceleration, a. It is easy to see how this law works. If
you want to cause a heavy car to increase or decrease its speed very suddenly, you must apply a
very strong force. If you want to cause a lighter car to increase or decrease its speed quite gradually,
you need to apply much less force. The third law of motion states that for every action, there is an
equal and opposite reaction. One of the important applications of this idea can be seen in the flight
of rockets. When a rocket expels hot, expanding gases from its tail, the backward force of those
gases propels the rocket forward. Newton realized that the second law of motion could help to
explain why objects, such as apples in an apple tree, tend to fall to the earth, and why the moon is
held in orbit around the earth. Newton discovered the law of universal gravitation, which can be
summarized as follows: every object in the universe attracts every other object in the universe with
a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the distance
between them. This law has many important implications for our understanding of the world around
us. One of these involves the tides: we can understand the rising and falling of ocean levels by
considering the gravitational forces applied by the moon and the sun. Newton's laws have served as
the foundation for physics and engineering since the 17th century. In the next article, we will discuss the revolutionary discoveries made by physicists during the 20th century.
Article 87 Physics: Quantum Theory and Relativity
During the early decades of the 20th century, the field of theoretical physics was revolutionized by
some startling new discoveries. These discoveries-quantum theory and relativity-had profound
implications for our understanding of the universe and for the development of new technology.
Quantum theory is concerned with the absorption and emission of energy by matter, and with the
wavelike motion of matter. This area of physics was developed by several scientists over a period of
about thirty years, beginning at the start of the 20th century. Before the development of quantum
theory, physicists had believed that energy could be absorbed or emitted in any amount, and that
matter occupied a definite location in space.
However, quantum theory showed that these conceptions were inaccurate.
According to quantum theory, energy can only be absorbed or emitted in certain, discrete amounts,
which are called quanta. It is as if energy is transported in small "packets" that only exist in
particular sizes. This finding can be seen in the frequencies of light and other radiation that are
emitted by different kinds of atoms. Each atom only emits radiation having certain frequencies.
These frequencies correspond to the amounts of energy that are released when the electrons that
orbit around the nucleus of an atom move from a higher orbital path to a lower orbital path.
Another astonishing feature of quantum theory is that matter can exist both as a particle and as a
wave. Experiments have shown that the electrons of an atom can behave as waves; for example,
electrons can diffract, or bend, in the same way that light waves bend. One surprising implication of
this wavelike property is that the precise location of a particle cannot be known with certainty.
The other major discovery of the early 20th century physics was the theory of relativity.
Unlike quantum theory, relativity was largely the work of one man, a physicist named Albert
Einstein. Einstein demonstrated that the speed of light is constant, regardless of the motion of the
observer. Einstein showed that, contrary to the assumptions of classical physics, time and motion
are not constant, but relative to the observer. If a spaceship could move at an extremely high speed,
time would pass considerably more slowly on that spaceship than for people who stayed on the
earth. Moreover, the spaceship will appear to become shorter as its speed increases, and the mass of
the spaceship would increase as its speed increased.
One of the bewildering ideas from Einstein's theory of relativity is the notion that time can be added
to the three dimensions of space-length, width, and height-as a fourth dimension. According to the
theory of relativity, massive objects cause a distortion, or warping, of this four-dimensional spacetime continuum.
But because the speed of light is constant, light will follow a straight line through space-time, and
its motion will appear to be warped as it moves through space that is distorted by massive objects
such as stars or planets.
Another astonishing implication of the theory of relativity is that matter and energy are
This is the basis for Einstein's famous formula, E = mc2, which states that energy equals mass times
the speed of light squared. This idea is the basis for atomic energy, which allows for the release of
energy by destroying a small amount of matter when the nucleus of an atom is divided, or split.
Today, thanks to the efforts of Einstein and the other physicists of the early 20th century, the study
of theoretical physics is based largely on the ideas of quantum theory and relativity. Also, much
of our modern technology-from electronics to nuclear power-is based on the ideas that were developed during this exciting period in the history of science.
Article 88 The Periodic Table of the Elements
Every chemistry student is familiar with the periodic table of the elements. This famous chart
arranges the elements-that is, the different varieties of atoms-according to their atomic weights. One
of the useful features of this table is that it identifies groups of elements that have similar chemical
The idea of arranging elements within a periodic table was proposed in 1869 by a Russian chemist
named Dimitri Mendeleyev. For many years, chemists had understood that matter consisted of
many different kinds of basic particles called atoms, and that these basic elements could combine
into many different compounds.
But even though much information had been learned about these elements, scientists did not yet
understand how the many different properties of the elements were related to each other, and they
could not predict what kinds of elements would be discovered in the future.
Mendeleyev realized that the elements could be arranged meaningfully in terms of their atomic
weight. For example, hydrogen is the element with the lightest atomic weight, so hydrogen is given
the atomic number one. The element with the next-lightest atomic weight is helium, so helium is
given the atomic number two. When Mendeleyev arranged the elements in this way, he discovered
that elements located close together usually had different properties, but that elements with similar
properties could be found at regular intervals further along the table.
This discovery of the "periodic" repetition of the properties of elements allowed Mendeleyev to
predict the properties of elements that had not yet been discovered. Based on the atomic number of
a hypothetical element, Mendeleyev could predict its properties, and later discoveries showed that
Mendeleyev's predictions were largely correct.
The periodic table has allowed the identification of several important groups of elements, which are
discussed briefly below.
The alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium, are soft metals that readily conduct heat and
electricity. They can explode when exposed to water. The halogens, such as fluorine and chlorine,
are non-metallic elements that combine with metallic elements to form salts.
The transition metals, such as mercury and gold, are very numerous. They conduct heat and
electricity, and can be shaped and stretched. They are often found in compounds with oxygen.
Three of the transition metals (iron, cobalt, and nickel) can produce a magnetic field.
The noble gases, such as helium and neon, have also been called "inert" gases, because they do not
readily form compounds with other elements.
The non-metals, such as oxygen and carbon, do not conduct heat or electricity very well, and cannot
be easily stretched or shaped. Non-metals are the main elements in organic compounds.
Article 89 Heredity and Mendel’s Experiments
For thousands of years, people have understood that many characteristics of plants or animals are
transmitted from parent to offspring. Because of this understanding, farmers have been able to
create better varieties of crops and livestock, by allowing the reproduction of only those individuals
that have the desired characteristics.
As a result, we now have domestic plants and animals that provide us with much more food than
their wild ancestors ever did. But even though people have long possessed some vague appreciation
for the principles of heredity, it has only been since the late 19th century that a systematic
understanding of those principles has been gained. The first scientist to discover the laws of
heredity was an Austrian monk, Johann Gregor Mendel. Mendel's investigations of heredity made
use of the pea plant. He studied several characteristics of peas that are transmitted by heredity, such
as the color of the peas (green versus yellow), the texture of the peas
(smooth versus wrinkled), and the height of the plant (tall versus short). Mendel studied heredity by
first finding plants that had shown the same characteristic for several generations?that is, plants that
were "pure-bred" for certain traits. He then crossed, or hybridized, pairs of pea plants that had
different colors, different textures, and different heights. Mendel found that the offspring of these
crossings did not show characteristics intermediate between those of the parents, but instead
resembled only one of the parents, with respect to a particular characteristic.
For example, when yellow pea plants and green pea plants were crossed, all of the offspring had
In this sense, the yellow color is said to be dominant, and the green color is said to be recessive.
Mendel also found that the recessive characteristics could re-emerge in later generations. When he
crossed different hybridized plants, he found that one-quarter of these second-generation offspring
would show the recessive trait, such as the green color.
From these results, Mendel deduced that traits are transmitted by discrete particles. (Nowadays,
these are called "genes".) For a given characteristic, an offspring inherits two of these, one from
each parent. If the offspring inherits different genes from each parent, then one of the genes is
"dominant" over the other, and the dominant trait emerges in the offspring. However, the recessive
trait may emerge in a later generation.
Mendel also found that different characteristics are inherited independently. For example, the
inheritance of color (green versus yellow) did not depend on the inheritance of texture (smooth
versus wrinkled). Each characteristic, such as color or texture, was inherited separately, without
influence due to any other characteristic. As a result, any combination of color and texture could
occur. Mendel's work was published in 1866, but it was ignored by other scientists until about 1900,
when other scientists independently re-discovered Mendel's findings, and brought attention to his
When scientists began studying heredity more widely, they noticed many cases that were exceptions
to Mendel's rules. For example, there are cases in which two or more different kinds of
characteristics tend to be inherited together. Nevertheless, Mendel's basic principles provided the
first insight into the mechanisms of heredity, and his work is recognized as the beginning of the
scientific study of genetics.
Article 90 Photosynthesis
Did you know that plants can "eat" light? Green plants obtain their energy directly from the sun, by
converting light energy into chemical energy. This process is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis
provides life not only to plants, but also to the animals (including people) that eat those plants. In
addition, photosynthesis gives us the oxygen that we need to breathe.
Scientists have gained detailed knowledge of the complex process of photosynthesis, which will be
summarized only briefly here. The basic chemical reaction of photosynthesis involves the
conversion of water, carbon dioxide, and light energy into glucose and oxygen. Glucose is a form of
carbohydrate that allows the storage of energy. It takes six molecules of carbon dioxide and twelve
molecules of water to produce one molecule of glucose, with six molecules of water and six
molecules of oxygen as by-products. How do plants obtain the water, carbon dioxide, and light
energy that they need for photosynthesis to occur -Water is obtained through the roots of the plant,
and is transported upwards through the stem or trunk of the plant to the leaves. The leaves can
directly absorb carbon dioxide from the air. The leaves also contain a green-colored chemical,
which is a pigment named chlorophyll. Chlorophyll has the special ability to absorb light energy
from the sun, and convert that energy into chemical form.
The process of photosynthesis involves several steps. In the first stages, light energy is absorbed by
chlorophyll. Some of this energy is used to decompose water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen.
The hydrogen is used in the next steps of photosynthesis, and the oxygen is released into the air as
a by-product. The remaining energy that is gained from sunlight is stored in chemical compounds
that are also used in the next stages of photosynthesis.
In those later stages, the hydrogen from the earlier stages is used, along with carbon and oxygen
from carbon dioxide molecules, to create increasingly more complex molecules. This process uses
the stored energy from the earlier stages of photosynthesis. Because this energy has already been
obtained from sunlight, these later stages of photosynthesis do not require any additional light.
The later stages of photosynthesis eventually produce glucose, which is a complex carbohydrate
molecule. Glucose allows energy to be stored in a stable form that can be used by the plant. Glucose
molecules can be sent throughout the plant, to provide the energy that is needed for the plant to live,
grow, and reproduce.
If the plant is eaten by an animal, then the animal can use this energy for its own life processes.
The process by which plants convert light into food is surely one of the miracles of nature.
Photosynthesis is a fascinating and complex process, and it provides us with the food we eat and the
air we breathe.
Article 91 The History of Life on Earth
For centuries, people have found fossils-the remains of organisms that once lived on the Earth.
But it has only been in the past century that scientists have been able to study fossils systematically,
by comparing findings from different locations and from different layers of rock. Today, scientists
have determined the approximate sequence in which life forms have appeared, evolved, and
disappeared here on our planet.
The age of the earth has been estimated at about 4.5 billion years, based on a technique called
radiometric dating. This technique is based on the fact that certain radioactive elements slowly
decay into other elements.
By measuring the ratios of the different kinds of elements in rocks, scientists can estimate the age of
those rocks. According to these tests, the earth (and moon) are about 4.5 billion years old.
Some forms of life emerged very early in the history of the earth. Fossils of some organisms similar
to blue-green algae have been dated as being more than three billion years old. For billions of years,
however, the earth had only very simple, single-celled forms of life. During this period, there were
not yet any complex organisms made up of many cells.
About 570 million years ago, there was a sudden expansion and diversification of multi-cellular
organisms. During the next 325 million years, many varieties of plants and animals evolved. Most
life forms existed in the seas, and many kinds of fish emerged during this time. But some animals
also began to live on land, and the first reptiles and amphibians appeared. Large forests of fern-like
trees covered much of the land.
About 245 million years ago, reptiles began to proliferate. Huge dinosaurs roamed the earth. This
age of dinosaurs ended about 65 million years ago, and many scientists believe that the dinosaurs
were eliminated when a comet struck the earth, creating a huge cloud of dust that blocked sunlight.
Some reptiles did survive, and so did the ancestors of today's birds and mammals. During the past
65 million years, many new varieties of birds and mammals have evolved. Some of these animals
were very large, but are now extinct.
Within the past two million years, several "ice ages" have occurred. Large areas of the earth were
periodically covered by thick sheets of ice. In between these ice ages, warmer periods prevailed.
During these recent times, humans gradually evolved.
The earth is indeed very old, and people have experienced this planet for only a short time.
But we have begun to learn many interesting things about the history
Article 92 The Great Apes
If you have ever visited a zoo, you have probably noticed that people seem to be fascinated by the
great apes. This fascination is probably due to the similarity that people notice between themselves
and these intelligent animals. In fact, humans share more similarities with the great apes than with
any other living creatures.
The various species of great apes (including people) belong to the Primate order, along with lesser
apes, monkeys, lemurs, and other small primates. The great apes possess several important features
in common. For example, they all have well-developed eyes, and their brains can process complex
visual information. In contrast, the sense of smell is not so well developed among apes. The great
apes do not have tails, but apes do have an opposable thumb, which allows them to grasp objects
Great apes are also able to walk upright, at least for short distances. They tend to be partly arboreal,
or tree-dwelling, and partly terrestrial, or ground-dwelling. Great apes usually have only one
offspring at a time, and these offspring require a long period of intense parental care before
adulthood is reached.
Finally, the great apes are capable of more advanced reasoning and learning than any other
animals. In this article, we will discuss four different kinds of great apes: orangutans, gorillas,
chimpanzees, and bonobos. Most zoologists would also include humans as a fifth kind of great ape;
in fact, chimpanzees and bonobos have greater genetic similarity to humans than to orangutans and
Orangutans have orange-brown fur, and live in the jungles of Indonesia. Male orangutans, which
weigh up to 90 kilograms, are much larger than females, which weigh up to 45 kilograms.
Orangutans like to eat fruit, and they tend to be solitary, living alone or in very small groups.
Orangutans are rather distantly related to the other great apes.
Gorillas, which live in the jungles of equatorial Africa, are the largest and strongest of the great
apes. Male gorillas can weigh over 250 kilograms, and females over 100 kilograms. Gorillas
generally eat leaves and small plants. They live in large social groups consisting of a dominant male,
several adult females and juveniles, and sometimes a subordinate male. Although gorillas can make
fierce, threatening displays, they are generally much less violent than chimpanzees.
Chimpanzees also live in the equatorial regions of Africa. These great apes tend to be somewhat
smaller in size than humans, but chimpanzees are very strong. The diet of chimpanzees mainly
includes fruit and other vegetation, but they also eat insects and even small mammals. Unlike
gorillas, chimpanzees usually live in large social groups, often containing dozens of individuals Chimpanzee sexual behavior tends to
be rather promiscuous. Relations between different groups of chimpanzees tend to be violent, with
deadly fighting over territory. Bonobos are closely related to chimpanzees, and for many years the
bonobo was considered to be simply a variety of chimpanzee. However, bonobos are different from
chimpanzees in several ways. First, bonobos
tend to be less violent, with only rare aggressive encounters between groups. Second, female
bonobos form strong alliances with each other, and as a result they are more powerful than male
bonobos. Finally, bonobos are highly promiscuous in their sexual behavior, with sex apparently
being used as a means of establishing friendships.
The diversity of the behavior and social structures of the great apes is truly remarkable. It is very
interesting to learn about these animals, which in many ways remind us of ourselves.
Article 93 The Composition of the Earth
As a child, you might have wondered what you would find if you could dig a hole deep into the
center of the earth. Scientists have also been interested in this question, and during the 20th century
they were able to learn much information about the composition of the earth. However, they did not
gain this knowledge by digging a hole deep into the center of the earth, because this is an
impossible task. Scientists have inferred the composition of the earth by using several sources of
First, they have carefully recorded and measured the "seismic waves" that are released by
earthquakes. Second, they have observed the composition of meteorites that have fallen to the
earth's surface from outer space. Third, they have conducted laboratory experiments to determine
of the earth and of different kinds of rocks. Let us now consider the structure of the earth itself.
The earth is composed of three distinct layers, known as the crust, the mantle, and the core.
The top layer is the crust, which is like a thin shell around the earth. The crust is composed of
different kinds of rocks. Under the oceans and deep below the continents, the crust is made up
of dense rocks, such as basalt, but the crust of the continents themselves is made up of lighter
rocks, such as granite. The crust is only a few kilometres thick under the oceans, but can be
30 to 90 kilometres thick under the continents.
Below the crust, the composition of the earth changes sharply at the point where the next layer,
the mantle, begins. This large layer is almost 3000 kilometres thick, and it makes up about twothirds of the earth's mass. The mantle consists of rocky materials such as silicon dioxide,
magnesium oxide, and iron oxide. Even though temperatures are very high in the mantle, the rock is
under such high pressure that it is unable to melt. However, the upper part of the mantle is almost in
Beneath the mantle, the core of the earth extends right to the very center of our planet, nearly
6400 kilometres below the surface. The core is itself divided into two parts: the outer part is liquid,
and the inner part is solid. Scientists know that the core is at least partly liquid, because earthquake
waves, which cannot travel through liquid, are stopped by the earth's core. The earth's core is very
dense, being composed of iron and nickel. These metals are responsible for the earth's magnetic
Of course, the crust, mantle, and core make up the solid parts of the earth, but we should not forget
about the water and air that rest on top of the earth's surface. About 71% of the earth's surface is
covered by water. A very small part of this water is the fresh water of lakes and rivers, but nearly all
of this water is the salt water of the seas and oceans. In every 100 kilograms of sea water, there are
about 3.5 kilograms of salt. More than three-quarters of this salt is common table salt, or sodium
chloride, but there are also large amounts of magnesium chloride and other salts.
Above both the oceans and the continents is the earth's atmosphere. The air around us is made
up mainly of nitrogen (about 78%) and oxygen (about 20%), with smaller amounts of argon, water
vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases. The atmosphere is thickest at the earth's surface, and
becomes thinner at higher altitudes. Ten kilometres above sea level, the air pressure is only about
one-fifth of what is found at sea level itself. At these high altitudes, the air becomes very cold, with
temperatures more than fifty degrees below zero. Above these altitudes is found the ozone layer,
where ozone molecules, each consisting of three oxygen atoms, protect the earth from the sun's
Thanks to the work of many scientists, we have now learned a great deal about the composition of
the earth. But much more knowledge about our planet remains to be learned by future scientists!
Article 94 The Sun
Ever since early humans first became aware of their environments, they have recognized the
importance of the sun's heat and light to life on the earth. People around the world have worshipped
the sun as a god, and more recently the sun has been the subject of intense study by scientists.
The sun is actually a star, and is described by astronomers as a rather "average" star. But the sun is
much closer to the earth than any other star. The sun's average distance from the earth is only 150
million kilometres. Although this distance is obviously very great, other stars are much farther away.
At the sun's relatively close distance, light can reach the earth in about eight minutes. The next
nearest stars to the earth, however, are so far away that their light takes four years to reach the
earth! Given these unimaginably vast distances, it is easy to understand why the sun seems so much
brighter than any other star.
The sun is much larger than the earth or the moon. In fact, the sun's diameter is about 110 times that
of the earth, and about 400 times that of the moon. This might seem surprising, given that the sun
and moon appear to be of virtually equal size when we look at them in the sky. However, the sun is
about 400 times farther away from us than the moon is, and this explains why the sun and moon
appear to be the same size.
This fact is a remarkable coincidence, and it makes possible the occurrence of spectacular solar
eclipses, when the moon seems to cover the sun almost perfectly. Note that even though the sun is a
fascinating object of study, you should never look at it directly. Even if you are wearing dark
sunglasses, the intense radiation from the sun can seriously damage your eyes.
The sun is composed of densely-packed gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. At the core of the sun,
hydrogen is transformed into helium by the process of nuclear fusion, which releases tremendous
energy. Temperatures at the sun¡?s core are estimated to reach 15 million degrees Kelvin; at the
surface of the sun, the temperatures are much cooler, reaching only a few thousand degrees. The
sun will someday use up all of its hydrogen, causing it to gradually die. But do not worry about thisscientists estimate that the sun will have enough fuel for at least another six billion years!
Periodically, there are magnetic storms on the surface of the sun. Astronomers refer to these
disturbances as sunspots. The activity of these sunspots sometimes causes interference with radio
transmissions here on earth, and is responsible for the "northern lights" that are sometimes seen at
night in northern latitudes.
The activity of sunspots seems to rise and fall in an eleven-year cycle, but there are also some
longer periods of high or low sunspot activity. Scientists believe that periods with few sunspots tend
to be associated with cooler temperatures on earth.
Besides providing us with the light and heat that are needed for the survival of life on earth, the sun
also gives us much of the beauty that we see in the world around us. Anyone who has watched the
colorful sky at sunrise or sunset will surely agree!
Article 95 Human Anatomy
The human body is truly one of the wonders of nature. Gaining an understanding human anatomy is
an important scientific goal, and it is obviously of crucial significance for medicine. Although the
human body is extremely complex, consisting of a vast array of interdependent parts, several
"systems" can be identified and studied individually. We will consider each of these major systems
The skeleton is made up of bones, joints, and cartilage. The skeleton serves as a frame that supports
the body, and as a hard shell that protects organs. The various bones of the skeleton are fitted
together at the joints, with cartilage acting as a cushioning material. Red blood cells are produced
within the marrow at the center of the bones.
The muscles, many of which are attached to the skeleton, allow the body to move and to apply force
to external objects, and also to perform some vital functions. Some muscles are under voluntary
control, but other muscles?such as the heart and the muscles of some internal organs?operate
without our conscious control.
The respiratory system is responsible for breathing and for the supply of oxygen. Air is inhaled
through the nose and mouth, and sent down the wind-pipe (or trachea) to the lungs. Within some
very small spaces inside the lungs, oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream. At the same time,
carbon dioxide is released and exhaled.
The circulatory system is responsible for supplying needed materials throughout the body, and for
removing unwanted materials. These materials are carried in the blood, which is pumped through
arteries and veins by the contraction of the heart. The blood also contains substances that help to
defend the body against infections. Another fluid, known as lymph, is also transported within the
The digestive system is responsible for extracting nutrients from food. Food is chewed in the mouth,
and then sent down the esophagus to the stomach. Within the stomach, food is broken down and
sent on to the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed. These digestive processes are aided
by substances that are released by other organs, such as the pancreas and liver. Undigested
material then goes to the large intestine, where water is re-absorbed. Waste is then excreted through
the colon and finally the anus.
The urinary system allows the body to maintain proper levels of water and other molecules, such as
sodium and potassium. Blood is sent through the kidneys, which then filter the blood to remove
unneeded materials. This waste liquid is sent through tubes called ureters to the bladder, where
it is stored and then expelled through another tube, the urethra.
The endocrine system contains the glands that release many substances, called hormones, that
control the body's activity. Various glands release hormones that regulate activities such as growth,
sexual development, and the breakdown of sugar and starch.
The nervous system is also heavily involved in the regulation of the body's activities. Sensory
information is sent via the nerves and spinal cord to the brain. The brain processes information, and
transmits instructions via the spinal cord and nerves to the rest of the body.
The skin is the largest organ of the body. It is responsible for covering and protecting the body's
other organs, and it helps to regulate body temperature and hydration. Hair and nails are actually
parts of the skin. The reproductive system differs between men and women. The reproductive
organs of men include the testicles, which produce sperm cells, and the penis, which is used in
sexual intercourse. In women,
the reproductive organs include the ovaries, where egg cells are produced, the uterus (or womb),
where the fetus develops, the clitoris, which is involved in sexual response, and the vagina, which is
involved in both sexual intercourse and in the birth of the baby. Women also possess developed
mammary glands that produce milk after childbirth.
To understand the workings of the human body in detail, many years of study are required. But we
can all gain and appreciate a basic understanding of how this amazing machine is put together.
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