What is V1 V2 V3 in English? Example V1 V2 V3

What is V1 V2 V3 in English? Example V1 V2 V3

You are an English learner, you must have heard of “terms” like V1 V2 V3 of verbs. So, what is V1 V2 V3? Are they acronyms for a word, a phrase, or a symbol?

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What is V1 V2 V3 in English?

V1 V2 V3 is the order of columns in the table of irregular verbs in English. In which, V means Verb and the numbers 1, 2, 3 are the ordinal numbers of the columns, corresponding to the verb forms, specifically as follows:
+ V1: Verb infinitive, standing in the first column.
+ V2: The verb conjugate in the past form (Past), stands in the second column.
+ V3: The verb is in the past participle form, standing in the 3rd column.

Regular verbs and Irregular verbs

Regular verbs

Irregular verbs

The past and participle forms always end with   “-ed”.
For example:  Look (V1) ->  Looked (V2) -> Looked (V3)
The past tense and participle form do not follow any rules.
For example:  Go (V1) ->  Went (V2) -> Gone (V3)

You might also like: Best List of Irregular Verbs in English

Example of V1 V2 V3 in English

V1 V2 V3 that does not change


V1 V2 V3
beset beset beset
bet bet bet
beat beat beaten/beat
bid bid bid
burst burst burst
cast cast cast
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
hear hear hear
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
input input input
inset inset inset
………… ………… …………

Past Simple V2 verbs & Past Participle V3 are the same

V2 V3 ending in “ought” or “aught”

……⇒ _ought ⇒ _ought

…… ⇒ _aught ⇒ _aught


V1 V2 V3
bring brought brought
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
teach taught taught

+ V1 ending with -ay move to V2, V3 ending with -aid


V1 V2 V3
lay laid laid
mislay mislaid mislaid
say said said
overlay overlaid overlaid
overpay overpaid overpaid
prepay prepaid prepaid
pay paid paid
repay repaid repaid

+ V2, V3 change the number of vowels ‘ee’ to ‘e’ and add or change _t or _d at the end


V1 V2 V3
creep crept crept
feel felt felt
feed fed fed
meet met met

+ V1 verbs ending in _d are changed to V2, V3 endings in _t


V1 V2 V3
rend rent rent
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt
spend spent spent
lend lent lent

+ V1 verbs end in _m or _n, then V2 and V3 end in _t


V1 V2 V3
burn burnt burnt
learn learnt learnt
mean meant meant
dream dreamt dreamt

V1 contains i change to V2 is a and V3 is u

This case is also quite common and used a lot in English, so keep this rule in mind so you don’t get confused in using the past word!


V1 V2 V3
ring rang rung
begin began begun
drink drank drunk
sink sank sunk

V1 ends with _ow, moves to V2 ends with _ew and V3 is _own


V1 V2 V3
blow blew blown
know knew known
grow grew grown
throw threw thrown

V1 form ending in _ear, moves to V2 are _ore and V3 is_orn

* Except: The verb Hear ⇒ heard ⇒ heard does not follow this rule.


V1 V2 V3
bear bore born
tear tore torn
swear swore sworn
forbear forbore forborn

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