You are an English learner, you must have heard of “terms” like V1 V2 V3 of verbs. So, what is V1 V2 V3? Are they acronyms for a word, a phrase, or a symbol?
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What is V1 V2 V3 in English?
V1 V2 V3 is the order of columns in the table of irregular verbs in English. In which, V means Verb and the numbers 1, 2, 3 are the ordinal numbers of the columns, corresponding to the verb forms, specifically as follows:
+ V1: Verb infinitive, standing in the first column.
+ V2: The verb conjugate in the past form (Past), stands in the second column.
+ V3: The verb is in the past participle form, standing in the 3rd column.
Regular verbs and Irregular verbs
|The past and participle forms always end with “-ed”.|
For example: Look (V1) -> Looked (V2) -> Looked (V3)
|The past tense and participle form do not follow any rules.|
For example: Go (V1) -> Went (V2) -> Gone (V3)
You might also like: Best List of Irregular Verbs in English
Example of V1 V2 V3 in English
V1 V2 V3 that does not change
Past Simple V2 verbs & Past Participle V3 are the same
+ V2 V3 ending in “ought” or “aught”
……⇒ _ought ⇒ _ought
…… ⇒ _aught ⇒ _aught
+ V1 ending with -ay move to V2, V3 ending with -aid
+ V2, V3 change the number of vowels ‘ee’ to ‘e’ and add or change _t or _d at the end
+ V1 verbs ending in _d are changed to V2, V3 endings in _t
+ V1 verbs end in _m or _n, then V2 and V3 end in _t
V1 contains i change to V2 is a and V3 is u
This case is also quite common and used a lot in English, so keep this rule in mind so you don’t get confused in using the past word!
V1 ends with _ow, moves to V2 ends with _ew and V3 is _own
V1 form ending in _ear, moves to V2 are _ore and V3 is_orn
* Except: The verb Hear ⇒ heard ⇒ heard does not follow this rule.
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